Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns and Homerica
THE MARRIAGE OF CEYX TO DOUBTFUL (fragments)
Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #8
Fragment #1 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 128: Hesiod in the "Marriage of Ceyx" says that he (Heracles) landed (from the Argo) to look for water and was left behind in Magnesia near the place called Aphetae because of his desertion there. Fragment #2 -- Zenobius (1), ii. 19: Hesiod used the proverb in the following way: Heracles is represented as having constantly visited the house of Ceyx of Trachis and spoken thus: `Of their own selves the good make for the feasts of good.' Fragment #3 -- Scholiast on Homer, Il. xiv. 119: `And horse-driving Ceyx beholding...' Fragment #4 -- Athenaeus, ii. p. 49b: Hesiod in the "Marriage of Ceyx" -- for though grammar-school boys alienate it from the poet, yet I consider the poem ancient -- calls the tables tripods. Fragment #5 -- Gregory of Corinth, On Forms of Speech (Rhett. Gr. vii. 776): `But when they had done with desire for the equal-shared feast, even then they brought from the forest the mother of a mother (sc. wood), dry and parched, to be slain by her own children' (sc. to be burnt in the flames). ENDNOTES: (1) A Greek sophist who taught rhetoric at Rome in the time of Hadrian. He is the author of a collection of proverbs in three books. THE GREAT EOIAE (fragments) Fragment #1 -- Pausanius, ii. 26. 3: Epidaurus. According to the opinion of the Argives and the epic poem, the "Great Eoiae", Argos the son of Zeus was father of Epidaurus. Fragment #2 -- Anonymous Comment. on Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, iii. 7: And, they say, Hesiod is sufficient to prove that the word PONEROS (bad) has the same sense as `laborious' or `ill-fated'; for in the "Great Eoiae" he represents Alcmene as saying to Heracles: `My son, truly Zeus your father begot you to be the most toilful as the most excellent...'; and again: `The Fates (made) you the most toilful and the most excellent...' Fragment #3 -- Scholiast on Pindar, Isthm. v. 53: The story has been taken from the "Great Eoiae"; for there we find Heracles entertained by Telamon, standing dressed in his lion-skin and praying, and there also we find the eagle sent by Zeus, from which Aias took his name (1). Fragment #4 -- Pausanias, iv. 2. 1: But I know that the so-called "Great Eoiae" say that Polycaon the son of Butes married Euaechme, daughter of Hyllus, Heracles' son. Fragment #5 -- Pausanias, ix. 40. 6: `And Phylas wedded Leipephile the daughter of famous Iolaus: and she was like the Olympians in beauty. She bare him a son Hippotades in the palace, and comely Thero who was like the beams of the moon. And Thero lay in the embrace of Apollo and bare horse-taming Chaeron of hardy strength.' Fragment #6 -- Scholiast on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 35: `Or like her in Hyria, careful-minded Mecionice, who was joined in the love of golden Aphrodite with the Earth-holder and Earth- Shaker, and bare Euphemus.' Fragment #7 -- Pausanias, ix. 36. 7: `And Hyettus killed Molurus the dear son of Aristas in his house because he lay with his wife. Then he left his home and fled from horse-rearing Argos and came to Minyan Orchomenus. And the hero received him and gave him a portion of his goods, as was fitting.' Fragment #8 -- Pausanias, ii. 2. 3: But in the "Great Eoiae" Peirene is represented to be the daughter of Oebalius. Fragment #9 -- Pausanias, ii. 16. 4: The epic poem, which the Greek call the "Great Eoiae", says that she (Mycene) was the daughter of Inachus and wife of Arestor: from her, then, it is said, the city received its name. Fragment #10 -- Pausanias, vi. 21. 10: According to the poem the "Great Eoiae", these were killed by Oenomaus (2): Alcathous the son of Porthaon next after Marmax, and after Alcathous, Euryalus, Eurymachus and Crotalus. The man killed next after them, Aerias, we should judge to have been a Lacedemonian and founder of Aeria. And after Acrias, they say, Capetus was done to death by Oenomaus, and Lycurgus, Lasius, Chalcodon and Tricolonus.... And after Tricolonus fate overtook Aristomachus and Prias on the course, as also Pelagon and Aeolius and Cronius. Fragment #11 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 57: In the "Great Eoiae" it is said that Endymion was transported by Zeus into heaven, but when he fell in love with Hera, was befooled with a shape of cloud, and was cast out and went down into Hades. Fragment #12 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 118: In the "Great Eoiae" it is related that Melampus, who was very dear to Apollo, went abroad and stayed with Polyphantes. But when the king had sacrificed an ox, a serpent crept up to the sacrifice and destroyed his servants. At this the king was angry and killed the serpent, but Melampus took and buried it. And its offspring, brought up by him, used to lick his ears and inspire him with prophecy. And so, when he was caught while trying to steal the cows of Iphiclus and taken bound to the city of Aegina, and when the house, in which Iphiclus was, was about to fall, he told an old woman, one of the servants of Iphiclus, and in return was released. Fragment #13 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 828: In the "Great Eoiae" Scylla is the daughter of Phoebus and Hecate. Fragment #14 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 181: Hesiod in the "Great Eoiae" says that Phineus was blinded because he told Phrixus the way (3). Fragment #15 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. ii. 1122: Argus. This is one of the children of Phrixus. These.... ....Hesiod in the "Great Eoiae" says were born of Iophossa the daughter of Aeetes. And he says there were four of them, Argus, Phrontis, Melas, and Cytisorus. Fragment #16 -- Antoninus Liberalis, xxiii: Battus. Hesiod tells the story in the "Great Eoiae".... ....Magnes was the son of Argus, the son of Phrixus and Perimele, Admetus' daughter, and lived in the region of Thessaly, in the land which men called after him Magnesia. He had a son of remarkable beauty, Hymenaeus. And when Apollo saw the boy, he was seized with love for him, and would not leave the house of Magnes. Then Hermes made designs on Apollo's herd of cattle which were grazing in the same place as the cattle of Admetus. First he cast upon the dogs which were guarding them a stupor and strangles, so that the dogs forgot the cows and lost the power of barking. Then he drove away twelve heifers and a hundred cows never yoked, and the bull who mounted the cows, fastening to the tail of each one brushwood to wipe out the footmarks of the cows. He drove them through the country of the Pelasgi, and Achaea in the land of Phthia, and through Locris, and Boeotia and Megaris, and thence into Peloponnesus by way of Corinth and Larissa, until he brought them to Tegea. From there he went on by the Lycaean mountains, and past Maenalus and what are called the watch-posts of Battus. Now this Battus used to live on the top of the rock and when he heard the voice of the heifers as they were being driven past, he came out from his own place, and knew that the cattle were stolen. So he asked for a reward to tell no one about them. Hermes promised to give it him on these terms, and Battus swore to say nothing to anyone about the cattle. But when Hermes had hidden them in the cliff by Coryphasium, and had driven them into a cave facing towards Italy and Sicily, he changed himself and came again to Battus and tried whether he would be true to him as he had vowed. So, offering him a robe as a reward, he asked of him whether he had noticed stolen cattle being driven past. And Battus took the robe and told him about the cattle. But Hermes was angry because he was double-tongued, and struck him with his staff and changed him into a rock. And either frost or heat never leaves him (4). ENDNOTES: (1) When Heracles prayed that a son might be born to Telamon and Eriboea, Zeus sent forth an eagle in token that the prayer would be granted. Heracles then bade the parents call their son Aias after the eagle (`aietos'). (2) Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis, warned by an oracle that he should be killed by his son-in-law, offered his daughter Hippodamia to the man who could defeat him in a chariot race, on condition that the defeated suitors should be slain by him. Ultimately Pelops, through the treachery of the charioteer of Oenomaus, became victorious. (3) sc. to Scythia. (4) In the Homeric "Hymn to Hermes" Battus almost disappears from the story, and a somewhat different account of the stealing of the cattle is given. THE MELAMPODIA (fragments) Fragment #1 -- Strabo, xiv. p. 642: It is said that Calchis the seer returned from Troy with Amphilochus the son of Amphiaraus and came on foot to this place (1). But happening to find near Clarus a seer greater than himself, Mopsus, the son of Manto, Teiresias' daughter, he died of vexation. Hesiod, indeed, works up the story in some form as this: Calchas set Mopsus the following problem: `I am filled with wonder at the quantity of figs this wild fig- tree bears though it is so small. Can you tell their number?' And Mopsus answered: `Ten thousand is their number, and their measure is a bushel: one fig is left over, which you would not be able to put into the measure.' So said he; and they found the reckoning of the measure true. Then did the end of death shroud Calchas. Fragment #2 -- Tzetzes on Lycophron, 682: But now he is speaking of Teiresias, since it is said that he lived seven generations -- though others say nine. He lived from the times of Cadmus down to those of Eteocles and Polyneices, as the author of "Melampodia" also says: for he introduces Teiresias speaking thus: `Father Zeus, would that you had given me a shorter span of life to be mine and wisdom of heart like that of mortal men! But now you have honoured me not even a little, though you ordained me to have a long span of life, and to live through seven generations of mortal kind.' Fragment #3 -- Scholiast on Homer, Odyssey, x. 494: They say that Teiresias saw two snakes mating on Cithaeron and that, when he killed the female, he was changed into a woman, and again, when he killed the male, took again his own nature. This same Teiresias was chosen by Zeus and Hera to decide the question whether the male or the female has most pleasure in intercourse. And he said: `Of ten parts a man enjoys only one; but a woman's sense enjoys all ten in full.' For this Hera was angry and blinded him, but Zeus gave him the seer's power. Fragment #4 -- (2) Athenaeus, ii. p. 40: `For pleasant it is at a feast and rich banquet to tell delightful tales, when men have had enough of feasting;...' Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis vi. 2 26: `...and pleasant also it is to know a clear token of ill or good amid all the signs that the deathless ones have given to mortal men.' Fragment #5 -- Athenaeus, xi. 498. A: `And Mares, swift messenger, came to him through the house and brought a silver goblet which he had filled, and gave it to the lord.' Fragment #6 -- Athenaeus, xi. 498. B: `And then Mantes took in his hands the ox's halter and Iphiclus lashed him upon the back. And behind him, with a cup in one hand and a raised sceptre in the other, walked Phylacus and spake amongst the bondmen.' Fragment #7 -- Athenaeus, xiii. p. 609 e: Hesiod in the third book of the "Melampodia" called Chalcis in Euboea `the land of fair women'. Fragment #8 -- Strabo, xiv. p. 676: But Hesiod says that Amphilochus was killed by Apollo at Soli. Fragment #9 -- Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, v. p. 259: `And now there is no seer among mortal men such as would know the mind of Zeus who holds the aegis.' ENDNOTES: (1) sc. Colophon. Proclus in his abstract of the "Returns" (sc. of the heroes from Troy) says Calchas and his party were present at the death of Teiresias at Colophon, perhaps indicating another version of this story. (2) ll. 1-2 are quoted by Athenaeus, ii. p. 40; ll. 3-4 by Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis vi. 2. 26. Buttman saw that the two fragments should be joined. (NOTE: These two fragments should be read together. -- DBK) AEGIMIUS (fragments) Fragment #1 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iii. 587: But the author of the "Aegimius" says that he (Phrixus) was received without intermediary because of the fleece (1). He says that after the sacrifice he purified the fleece and so: `Holding the fleece he walked into the halls of Aeetes.' Fragment #2 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. iv. 816: The author of the "Aegimius" says in the second book that Thetis used to throw the children she had by Peleus into a cauldron of water, because she wished to learn where they were mortal.... ....And that after many had perished Peleus was annoyed, and prevented her from throwing Achilles into the cauldron. Fragment #3 -- Apollodorus, ii. 1.3.1: Hesiod and Acusilaus say that she (Io) was the daughter of Peiren. While she was holding the office of priestess of Hera, Zeus seduced her, and being discovered by Hera, touched the girl and changed her into a white cow, while he swore that he had no intercourse with her. And so Hesiod says that oaths touching the matter of love do not draw down anger from the gods: `And thereafter he ordained that an oath concerning the secret deeds of the Cyprian should be without penalty for men.' Fragment #4 -- Herodian in Stephanus of Byzantium: `(Zeus changed Io) in the fair island Abantis, which the gods, who are eternally, used to call Abantis aforetime, but Zeus then called it Euboea after the cow.' (2) Fragment #5 -- Scholiast on Euripides, Phoen. 1116: `And (Hera) set a watcher upon her (Io), great and strong Argus, who with four eyes looks every way. And the goddess stirred in him unwearying strength: sleep never fell upon his eyes; but he kept sure watch always.' Fragment #6 -- Scholiast on Homer, Il. xxiv. 24: `Slayer of Argus'. According to Hesiod's tale he (Hermes) slew (Argus) the herdsman of Io. Fragment #7 -- Athenaeus, xi. p. 503: And the author of the "Aegimius", whether he is Hesiod or Cercops of Miletus (says): `There, some day, shall be my place of refreshment, O leader of the people.' Fragment #8 -- Etym. Gen.: Hesiod (says there were so called) because they settled in three groups: `And they all were called the Three-fold people, because they divided in three the land far from their country.' For (he says) that three Hellenic tribes settled in Crete, the Pelasgi, Achaeans and Dorians. And these have been called Three-fold People. ENDNOTES: (1) sc. the golden fleece of the ram which carried Phrixus and Helle away from Athamas and Ino. When he reached Colchis Phrixus sacrificed the ram to Zeus. (2) Euboea properly means the `Island of fine Cattle (or Cows)'. FRAGMENTS OF UNKNOWN POSITION Fragment #1 -- Diogenes Laertius, viii. 1. 26: (1) `So Urania bare Linus, a very lovely son: and him all men who are singers and harpers do bewail at feasts and dances, and as they begin and as they end they call on Linus....' Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 121: `....who was skilled in all manner of wisdom.' Fragment #2 -- Scholiast on Homer, Odyssey, iv. 232: `Unless Phoebus Apollo should save him from death, or Paean himself who knows the remedies for all things.' Fragment #3 -- Clement of Alexandria, Protrept, c. vii. p. 21: `For he alone is king and lord of all the undying gods, and no other vies with him in power.' Fragment #4 -- Anecd. Oxon (Cramer), i. p. 148: `(To cause?) the gifts of the blessed gods to come near to earth.' Fragment #5 -- Clement of Alexandria, Strom. i. p. 123: `Of the Muses who make a man very wise, marvellous in utterance.' Fragment #6 -- Strabo, x. p. 471: `But of them (sc. the daughters of Hecaterus) were born the divine mountain Nymphs and the tribe of worthless, helpless Satyrs, and the divine Curetes, sportive dancers.' Fragment #7 -- Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 824: `Beseeching the offspring of glorious Cleodaeus.' Fragment #8 -- Suidas, s.v.: `For the Olympian gave might to the sons of Aeacus, and wisdom to the sons of Amythaon, and wealth to the sons of Atreus.' Fragment #9 -- Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, xiii. 155: `For through his lack of wood the timber of the ships rotted.' Fragment #10 -- Etymologicum Magnum: `No longer do they walk with delicate feet.' Fragment #11 -- Scholiast on Homer, Iliad, xxiv. 624: `First of all they roasted (pieces of meat), and drew them carefully off the spits.' Fragment #12 -- Chrysippus, Fragg. ii. 254. 11: `For his spirit increased in his dear breast.' Fragment #13 -- Chrysippus, Fragg. ii. 254. 15: `With such heart grieving anger in her breast.' Fragment #14 -- Strabo, vii. p. 327: `He went to Dodona and the oak-grove, the dwelling place of the Pelasgi.' Fragment #15 -- Anecd. Oxon (Cramer), iii. p. 318. not.: `With the pitiless smoke of black pitch and of cedar.' Fragment #16 -- Schliast on Apollonius Rhodius, Arg. i. 757: `But he himself in the swelling tide of the rain-swollen river.' Fragment #17 -- Stephanus of Byzantium: (The river) Parthenius, `Flowing as softly as a dainty maiden goes.' Fragment #18 -- Scholiast on Theocritus, xi. 75: `Foolish the man who leaves what he has, and follows after what he has not.' Fragment #19 -- Harpocration: `The deeds of the young, the counsels of the middle-aged, and the prayers of the aged.' Fragment #20 -- Porphyr, On Abstinence, ii. 18. p. 134: `Howsoever the city does sacrifice, the ancient custom is best.' Fragment #21 -- Scholiast on Nicander, Theriaca, 452: `But you should be gentle towards your father.' Fragment #22 -- Plato, Epist. xi. 358: `And if I said this, it would seem a poor thing and hard to understand.' Fragment #23 -- Bacchylides, v. 191-3: Thus spake the Boeotian, even Hesiod (2), servant of the sweet Muses: `whomsoever the immortals honour, the good report of mortals also followeth him.' ENDNOTES: (1) This and the following fragment are meant to be read together. -- DBK (2) cp. Hesiod "Theogony" 81 ff. But Theognis 169, `Whomso the god honour, even a man inclined to blame praiseth him', is much nearer. DOUBTFUL FRAGMENTS Fragment #1 -- Galen, de plac. Hipp. et Plat. i. 266: `And then it was Zeus took away sense from the heart of Athamas.' Fragment #2 -- Scholiast on Homer, Od. vii. 104: `They grind the yellow grain at the mill.' Fragment #3 -- Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. ii. 1: `Then first in Delos did I and Homer, singers both, raise our strain -- stitching song in new hymns -- Phoebus Apollo with the golden sword, whom Leto bare.' Fragment #4 -- Julian, Misopogon, p. 369: `But starvation on a handful is a cruel thing.' Fragment #5 -- Servius on Vergil, Aen. iv. 484: Hesiod says that these Hesperides.... ....daughters of Night, guarded the golden apples beyond Ocean: `Aegle and Erythea and ox-eyed Hesperethusa.' (1) Fragment #6 -- Plato, Republic, iii. 390 E: `Gifts move the gods, gifts move worshipful princes.' Fragment #7 -- (2) Clement of Alexandria, Strom. v. p. 256: `On the seventh day again the bright light of the sun....' Fragment #8 -- Apollonius, Lex. Hom.: `He brought pure water and mixed it with Ocean's streams.' Fragment #9 -- Stephanus of Byzantium: `Aspledon and Clymenus and god-like Amphidocus.' (sons of Orchomenus). Fragment #10 -- Scholiast on Pindar, Nem. iii. 64: `Telemon never sated with battle first brought light to our comrades by slaying blameless Melanippe, destroyer of men, own sister of the golden-girdled queen.' ENDNOTES: (1) Cf. Scholion on Clement, "Protrept." i. p. 302. (2) This line may once have been read in the text of "Works and Days" after l. 771.