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Medieval and Classical Library

Heimskringla
or
The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway

By
Snorri Sturluson
(c. 1179 - 1241)

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b

Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 A.D., by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. English translation by Samuel Laing (London, 1844).

The text of this edition is based on that published as "Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings" (Norroena Society, London, 1907), except for "Ynglinga Saga", which for reasons unknown is curiously absent from the Norroena Society edition. "Ynglinga Saga" text taken from Laing's original edition (London, 1844).

This electronic edition was edited, proofed, and prepared by Douglas B. Killings DeTroyes@AOL.COM, April 1996. Some corrections and "Ynglinga Saga" added courtesy of Ms. Diane Brendan, May 1996.

[ Preparer's Note ] [ Preface ]

CONTENTS



PREPARER'S NOTE:

The "Heimskringla" of Snorri Sturlason is a collection of sagas concerning the various rulers of Norway, from about A.D. 850 to the year A.D. 1177.

The Sagas covered in this work are the following:

1. Ynglinga Saga
2. Halfdan the Black Saga
3. Harald Harfager's Saga
4. Hakon the Good's Saga
5. Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Hakon Son of Sigurd
6. King Olaf Trygvason's Saga
7. Saga of Olaf Haraldson (St. Olaf)
8. Saga of Magnus the Good
9. Saga of Harald Hardrade
10. Saga of Olaf Kyrre
11. Magnus Barefoot's Saga
12. Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and His Brothers Eystein and Olaf
13. Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille
14. Saga of Sigurd, Inge, and Eystein, the Sons of Harald
15. Saga of Hakon Herdebreid ("Hakon the Broad-Shouldered")
16. Magnus Erlingson's Saga

While scholars and historians continue to debate the historical accuracy of Sturlason's work, the "Heimskringla" is still considered an important original source for information on the Viking Age, a period which Sturlason covers almost in its entirety.


SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY:

ORIGINAL TEXT --

Athalbjarnarson, Bjarni (ed.): "Heimskringla" vol. I-III (Reykjavik, 1946-51).


OTHER TRANSLATIONS --

Hollander, Lee M.: "Heimskringla" (University of Texas Press, 1964)

Magnusson, Magnus and Hermann Palsson: "King Harald's Saga" (Penguin Classics, London, 1966). "Saga of Harald Hardrade" only.

Morris, William and Eirikr Magnusson: "Heimskingla", in "Saga Library", vol III-VI (London, 1893).


RECOMMENDED READING --

Jones, Gwyn: "A History of the Vikings" (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1968; Revised, 1984).



PREFACE OF SNORRE STURLASON.

In this book I have had old stories written down, as I have heard them told by intelligent people, concerning chiefs who have have held dominion in the northern countries, and who spoke the Danish tongue; and also concerning some of their family branches, according to what has been told me. Some of this is found in ancient family registers, in which the pedigrees of kings and other personages of high birth are reckoned up, and part is written down after old songs and ballads which our forefathers had for their amusement. Now, although we cannot just say what truth there may be in these, yet we have the certainty that old and wise men held them to be true.

Thjodolf of Hvin was the skald of Harald Harfager, and he composed a poem for King Rognvald the Mountain-high, which is called "Ynglingatal." This Rognvald was a son of Olaf Geirstadalf, the brother of King Halfdan the Black. In this poem thirty of his forefathers are reckoned up, and the death and burial-place of each are given. He begins with Fjolner, a son of Yngvefrey, whom the Swedes, long after his time, worshipped and sacrificed to, and from whom the race or family of the Ynglings take their name.

Eyvind Skaldaspiller also reckoned up the ancestors of Earl Hakon the Great in a poem called "Haleygjatal", composed about Hakon; and therein he mentions Saeming, a son of Yngvefrey, and he likewise tells of the death and funeral rites of each. The lives and times of the Yngling race were written from Thjodolf's relation enlarged afterwards by the accounts of intelligent people.

As to funeral rites, the earliest age is called the Age of Burning; because all the dead were consumed by fire, and over their ashes were raised standing stones. But after Frey was buried under a cairn at Upsala, many chiefs raised cairns, as commonly as stones, to the memory of their relatives.

The Age of Cairns began properly in Denmark after Dan Milkillate had raised for himself a burial cairn, and ordered that he should be buried in it on his death, with his royal ornaments and armour, his horse and saddle-furniture, and other valuable goods; and many of his descendants followed his example. But the burning of the dead continued, long after that time, to be the custom of the Swedes and Northmen. Iceland was occupied in the time that Harald Harfager was the King of Norway. There were skalds in Harald's court whose poems the people know by heart even at the present day, together with all the songs about the kings who have ruled in Norway since his time; and we rest the foundations of our story principally upon the songs which were sung in the presence of the chiefs themselves or of their sons, and take all to be true that is found in such poems about their feats and battles: for although it be the fashion with skalds to praise most those in whose presence they are standing, yet no one would dare to relete to a chief what he, and all those who heard it, knew to be a false and imaginary, not a true account of his deeds; because that would be mockery, not praise.


OF THE PRIEST ARE FRODE

The priest Are Frode (the learned), a son of Thorgils the son of Geller, was the first man in this country who wrote down in the Norse language narratives of events both old and new. In the beginning of his book he wrote principally about the first settlements in Iceland, the laws and government, and next of the lagmen, and how long each had administered the law; and he reckoned the years at first, until the time when Christianity was introduced into Iceland, and afterwards reckoned from that to his own times. To this he added many other subjects, such as the lives and times of kings of Norway and Denmark, and also of England; beside accounts of great events which have taken place in this country itself. His narratives are considered by many men of knowledge to be the most remarkable of all; because he was a man of good understanding, and so old that his birth was as far back as the year after Harald Sigurdson's fall. He wrote, as he himself says, the lives and times of the kings of Norway from the report of Od Kolson, a grandson of Hal of Sida. Od again took his information from Thorgeir Afradskol, who was an intelligent man, and so old that when Earl Hakon the Great was killed he was dwelling at Nidarnes -- the same place at which King Olaf Trygvason afterwards laid the foundation of the merchant town of Nidaros (i.e., Throndhjem) which is now there. The priest Are came, when seven years old, to Haukadal to Hal Thorarinson, and was there fourteen years. Hal was a man of great knowledge and of excellent memory; and he could even remember being baptized, when he was three years old, by the priest Thanghrand, the year before Christianity was established by law in Iceland. Are was twelve years of age when Bishop Isleif died, and at his death eighty years had elapsed since the fall of Olaf Trygvason. Hal died nine years later than Bishop Isleif, and had attained nearly the age of ninety-four years. Hal had traded between the two countries, and had enjoyed intercourse with King Olaf the Saint, by which he had gained greatly in reputation, and he had become well acquainted with the kingdom of Norway. He had fixed his residence in Haukadal when he was thirty years of age, and he had dwelt there sixty-four years, as Are tells us. Teit, a son of Bishop Isleif, was fostered in the house of Hal at Haukadal, and afterwards dwelt there himself. He taught Are the priest, and gave him information about many circumstances which Are afterwards wrote down. Are also got many a piece of information from Thurid, a daughter of the gode Snorre. She was wise and intelligent, and remembered her father Snorre, who was nearly thirty-five years of age when Christianity was introduced into Iceland, and died a year after King Olaf the Saint's fall. So it is not wonderful that Are the priest had good information about ancient events both here in Iceland, and abroad, being a man anxious for information, intelligent and of excellent memory, and having besides learned much from old intelligent persons. But the songs seem to me most reliable if they are sung correctly, and judiciously interpreted.

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