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Medieval and Classical Library

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 7: A.D. 1102 - 1154

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17



A.D. 1102.  In this year at the Nativity was the King Henry at
Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester.  And soon thereafter
arose a dissention between the king and the Earl Robert of
Belesme, who held in this land the earldom of Shrewsbury, that
his father, Earl Roger, had before, and much territory therewith
both on this side and beyond the sea.  And the king went and
beset the castle at Arundel; but when he could not easily win it,
he allowed men to make castles before it, and filled them with
his men; and afterwards with all his army he went to Bridgenorth,
and there continued until he had the castle, and deprived the
Earl Robert of his land, and stripped him of all that he had in
England.  And the earl accordingly went over sea, and the army
afterwards returned home.  Then was the king thereafter by
Michaelmas at Westminster; and all the principal men in this
land, clerk, and laity.  And the Archbishop Anselm held a synod
of clergy; and there they established many canons that belong to
Christianity.  And many, both French and English, were there
deprived of their staves and dignity, which they either obtained
with injustice, or enjoyed with dishonour.  And in this same
year, in the week of the feast of Pentecost, there came thieves,
some from Auvergne, (133) some from France, and some from
Flanders, and broke into the minster of Peterborough, and therein
seized much property in gold and in silver; namely, roods, and
chalices, and candlesticks.

A.D. 1103.  In this year, at midwinter, was the King Henry at
Westminster.  And soon afterwards departed the Bishop William
Giffard out of this land; because he would not against right
accept his hood at the hands of the Archbishop Gerard of York.
And then at Easter held the king his court at Winchester, and
afterwards went the Archbishop Anselm from Canterbury to Rome, as
was agreed between him and the king.  This year also came the
Earl Robert of Normandy to speak with the king in this land; and
ere he departed hence he forgave the King Henry the three
thousand marks that he was bound by treaty to give him each year.
In this year also at Hamstead in Berkshire was seen blood [to
rise] from the earth.  This was a very calamitous year in this
land, through manifold impositions, and through murrain of
cattle, and deficiency of produce, not only in corn, but in every
kind of fruit.  Also in the morning, upon the mass day of St.
Laurence, the wind did so much harm here on land to all fruits,
as no man remembered that ever any did before.  In this same year
died Matthias, Abbot of Peterborough, who lived no longer than
one year after he was abbot.  After Michaelmas, on the twelfth
day before the calends of November, he was in full procession
received as abbot; and on the same day of the next year he was
dead at Glocester, and there buried.

A.D. 1104.  In this year at Christmas held the King Henry his
court at Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, and at
Pentecost again at Westminster.  This year was the first day of
Pentecost on the nones of June; and on the Tuesday following were
seen four circles at mid-day about the sun, of a white hue, each
described under the other as if they were measured.  All that saw
it wondered; for they never remembered such before.  Afterwards
were reconciled the Earl Robert of Normandy and Robert de
Belesme, whom the King Henry had before deprived of his lands,
and driven from England; and through their reconciliation the
King of England and the Earl of Normandy became adversaries.  And
the king sent his folk over sea into Normandy; and the head-men
in that land received them, and with treachery to their lord, the
earl, lodged them in their castles, whence they committed many
outrages on the earl in plundering and burning.  This year also
William, Earl of Moreton (134) went from this land into Normandy;
but after he was gone he acted against the king; because the king
stripped and deprived him of all that he had here in this land.
It is not easy to describe the misery of this land, which it was
suffering through various and manifold wrongs and impositions,
that never failed nor ceased; and wheresoever the king went,
there was full licence given to his company to harrow and oppress
his wretched people; and in the midst thereof happened oftentimes
burnings and manslaughter.  All this was done to the displeasure
of God, and to the vexation of this unhappy people.

A.D. 1105.  In this year, on the Nativity, held the King Henry
his court at Windsor; and afterwards in Lent he went over sea
into Normandy against his brother Earl Robert.  And whilst he
remained there he won of his brother Caen and Baieux; and almost
all the castles and the chief men in that land were subdued.  And
afterwards by harvest he returned hither again; and that which he
had won in Normandy remained afterwards in peace and subjection
to him; except that which was anywhere near the Earl William of
Moretaine.  This he often demanded as strongly as he could for
the loss of his land in this country.  And then before Christmas
came Robert de Belesme hither to the king.  This was a very
calamitous year in this land, through loss of fruits, and through
the manifold contributions, that never ceased before the king
went over [to Normandy], or while he was there, or after he came
back again.

A.D. 1106.  In this year was the King Henry on the Nativity at
Westminster, and there held his court; and at that season Robert
de Belesme went unreconciled from the king out of his land into
Normandy.  Hereafter before Lent was the king at Northampton; and
the Earl Robert his brother came thither from Normandy to him;
and because the king would not give him back that which he had
taken from him in Normandy, they parted in hostility; and the
earl soon went over sea back again.  In the first week of Lent,
on the Friday, which was the fourteenth before the calends of
March, in the evening appeared an unusual star; and a long time
afterwards was seen every evening shining awhile.  The star
appeared in the south-west; it was thought little and dark; but
the train of light which stood from it was very bright, and
appeared like an immense beam shining north-east; and some
evening this beam was seen as if it were moving itself forwards
against the star.  Some said that they saw more of such unusual
stars at this time; but we do not write more fully about it,
because we saw it not ourselves.  On the night preceding the
Lord's Supper, (135) that is, the Thursday before Easter, were
seen two moons in the heavens before day, the one in the east,
and the other in the west, both full; and it was the fourteenth
day of the moon.  At Easter was the king at Bath, and at
Pentecost at Salisbury; because he would not hold his court when
he was beyond the sea.  After this, and before August, went the
king over sea into Normandy; and almost all that were in that
land submitted to his will, except Robert de Belesme and the Earl
of Moretaine, and a few others of the principal persons who yet
held with the Earl of Normandy.  For this reason the king
afterwards advanced with an army, and beset a castle of the Earl
of Moretaine, called Tenerchebrai. (136)  Whilst the king beset
the castle, came the Earl Robert of Normandy on Michaelmas eve
against the king with his army, and with him Robert of Belesme,
and William, Earl of Moretaine, and all that would be with them;
but the strength and the victory were the king's.  There was the
Earl of Normandy taken, and the Earl of Moretaine, and Robert of
Stutteville, and afterwards sent to England, and put into
custody.  Robert of Belesme was there put to flight, and William
Crispin was taken, and many others forthwith.  Edgar Etheling,
who a little before had gone over from the king to the earl, was
also there taken, whom the king afterwards let go unpunished.
Then went the king over all that was in Normandy, and settled it
according to his will and discretion.  This year also were heavy
and sinful conflicts between the Emperor of Saxony and his son,
and in the midst of these conflicts the father fell, and the son
succeeded to the empire.

A.D. 1107.  In this year at Christmas was the King Henry in
Normandy; and, having disposed and settled that land to his will,
he afterwards came hither in Lent, and at Easter held his court
at Windsor, and at Pentecost in Westminster.  And afterwards in
the beginning of August he was again at Westminster, and there
gave away and settled the bishoprics and abbacies that either in
England or in Normandy were without elders and pastors.  Of these
there were so many, that there was no man who remembered that
ever so many together were given away before.  And on this same
occasion, among the others who accepted abbacies, Ernulf, who
before was prior at Canterbury, succeeded to the abbacy in
Peterborough.  This was nearly about seven years after the King
Henry undertook the kingdom, and the one and fortieth year since
the Franks governed this land.  Many said that they saw sundry
tokens in the moon this year, and its orb increasing and
decreasing contrary to nature.  This year died Maurice, Bishop of
London, and Robert, Abbot of St. Edmund's bury, and Richard,
Abbot of Ely.  This year also died the King Edgar in Scotland, on
the ides of January, and Alexander his brother succeeded to the
kingdom, as the King Henry granted him.

A.D. 1108.  In this year was the King Henry on the Nativity at
Westminster, and at Easter at Winchester, and by Pentecost at
Westminster again.  After this, before August, he went into
Normandy.  And Philip, the King of France, died on the nones of
August, and his son Louis succeeded to the kingdom.  And there
were afterwards many struggles between the King of France and the
King of England, while the latter remained in Normandy.  In this
year also died the Archbishop Girard of York, before Pentecost,
and Thomas was afterwards appointed thereto.

A.D. 1109.  In this year was the King Henry at Christmas and at
Easter in Normandy; and before Pentecost he came to this land,
and held his court at Westminster.  There were the conditions
fully settled, and the oaths sworn, for giving his daughter (137)
to the emperor. (138)  This year were very frequent storms of
thunder, and very tremendous; and the Archbishop Anselm of
Canterbury died on the eleventh day before the calends of April;
and the first day of Easter was on "Litania major".

A.D. 1110.  In this year held the King Henry his court at
Christmas in Westminster, and at Easter he was at Marlborough,
and at Pentecost he held his court for the first time in New
Windsor.  This year before Lent the king sent his daughter with
manifold treasures over sea, and gave her to the emperor.  On the
fifth night in the month of May appeared the moon shining bright
in the evening, and afterwards by little and little its light
diminished, so that, as soon as night came, (139) it was so
completely extinguished withal, that neither light, nor orb, nor
anything at all of it was seen.  And so it continued nearly until
day, and then appeared shining full and bright.  It was this same
day a fortnight old.  All the night was the firmament very clear,
and the stars over all the heavens shining very bright.  And the
fruits of the trees were this night sorely nipt by frost. 
Afterwards, in the month of June, appeared a star north-east, and
its train stood before it towards the south-west.  Thus was it
seen many nights; and as the night advanced, when it rose higher,
it was seen going backward toward the north-west.  This year were
deprived of their lands Philip of Braiose, and William Mallet,
and William Bainard.  This year also died Earl Elias, who held
Maine in fee-tail (140) of King Henry; and after his death the
Earl of Anjou succeeded to it, and held it against the king. 
This was a very calamitous year in this land, through the
contributions which the king received for his daughter's portion,
and through the badness of the weather, by which the fruits of
the earth were very much marred, and the produce of the trees
over all this land almost entirely perished.  This year men began
first to work at the new minster at Chertsey.

A.D. 1111.  This year the King Henry bare not his crown at
Christmas, nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost.  And in August he
went over sea into Normandy, on account of the broils that some
had with him by the confines of France, and chiefly on account of
the Earl of Anjou, who held Maine against him.  And after he came
over thither, many conspiracies, and burnings, and harrowings,
did they between them.  In this year died the Earl Robert of
Flanders, and his son Baldwin succeeded thereto. (141)  This year
was the winter very long, and the season heavy and severe; and
through that were the fruits of the earth sorely marred, and
there was the greatest murrain of cattle that any man could
remember.

A.D. 1112.  All this year remained the King Henry in Normandy on
account of the broils that he had with France, and with the Earl
of Anjou, who held Maine against him.  And whilst he was there,
he deprived of their lands the Earl of Evreux, and William
Crispin, and drove them out of Normandy.  To Philip of Braiose he
restored his land, who had been before deprived of it; and Robert
of Belesme he suffered to be seized, and put into prison.  This
was a very good year, and very fruitful, in wood and in field;
but it was a very heavy time and sorrowful, through a severe
mortality amongst men.

A.D. 1113.  In this year was the King Henry on the Nativity and
at Easter and at Pentecost in Normandy.  And after that, in the
summer, he sent hither Robert of Belesme into the castle at
Wareham, and himself soon (142) afterwards came hither to this
land.

A.D. 1114.  In this year held the King Henry his court on the
Nativity at Windsor, and held no other court afterwards during
the year.  And at midsummer he went with an army into Wales; and
the Welsh came and made peace with the king.  And he let men
build castles therein.  And thereafter, in September, he went
over sea into Normandy.  This year, in the latter end of May, was
seen an uncommon star with a long train, shining many nights.  In
this year also was so great an ebb of the tide everywhere in one
day, as no man remembered before; so that men went riding and
walking over the Thames eastward of London bridge.  This year
were very violent winds in the month of October; but it was
immoderately rough in the night of the octave of St. Martin; and
that was everywhere manifest both in town and country.  In this
year also the king gave the archbishopric of Canterbury to Ralph,
who was before Bishop of Rochester; and Thomas, Archbishop of
York, died; and Turstein succeeded thereto, who was before the
king's chaplain.  About this same time went the king toward the
sea, and was desirous of going over, but the weather prevented
him; then meanwhile sent he his writ after the Abbot Ernulf of
Peterborough, and bade that he should come to him quickly, for
that he wished to speak with him on an interesting subject.  When
he came to him, he appointed him to the bishopric of Rochester;
and the archbishops and bishops and all the nobility that were in
England coincided with the king.  And he long withstood, but it
availed nothing.  And the king bade the archbishop that he should
lead him to Canterbury, and consecrate him bishop whether he
would or not. (143)  This was done in the town called Bourne
(144) on the seventeenth day before the calends of October.  When
the monks of Peterborough heard of this, they felt greater sorrow
than they had ever experienced before; because he was a very good
and amiable man, and did much good within and without whilst he
abode there.  God Almighty abide ever with him.  Soon after this
gave the king the abbacy to a monk of Sieyes, whose name was
John, through the intreaty of the Archbishop of Canterbury.  And
soon after this the king and the Archbishop of Canterbury sent
him to Rome after the archbishop's pall; and a monk also with
him, whose name was Warner, and the Archdeacon John, the nephew
of the archbishop.  And they sped well there.  This was done on
the seventh day before the calends Of October, in the town that
is yclept Rowner.  And this same day went the king on board ship
at Portsmouth.

A.D. 1115.  This year was the King Henry on the Nativity in
Normandy.  And whilst he was there, he contrived that all the
head men in Normandy did homage and fealty to his son William,
whom he had by his queen.  And after this, in the month of July,
he returned to this land.  This year was the winter so severe,
with snow and with frost, that no man who was then living ever
remembered one more severe; in consequence of which there was
great destruction of cattle.  During this year the Pope Paschalis
sent the pall into this land to Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury;
and he received it with great worship at his archiepiscopal stall
in Canterbury.  It was brought hither from Rome by Abbot Anselm,
who was the nephew of Archbishop Anselm, and the Abbot John of
Peterborough.

A.D. 1116.  In this year was the King Henry on the Nativity at
St. Alban's, where he permitted the consecration of that
monastery; and at Easter he was at Odiham.  And there was also
this year a very heavy-timed winter, strong and long, for cattle
and for all things.  And the king soon after Easter went over sea
into Normandy.  And there were many conspiracies and robberies,
and castles taken betwixt France and Normandy.  Most of this
disturbance was because the King Henry assisted his nephew,
Theobald de Blois, who was engaged in a war against his lord,
Louis, the King of France.  This was a very vexatious and
destructive year with respect to the fruits of the earth, through
the immoderate rains that fell soon after the beginning of
August, harassing and perplexing men till Candlemas-day.  This
year also was so deficient in mast, that there was never heard
such in all this land or in Wales.  This land and nation were
also this year oft and sorely swincked by the guilds which the
king took both within the boroughs and without.  In this same
year was consumed by fire the whole monastery of Peterborough,
and all the buildings, except the chapter-house and the
dormitory, and therewith also all the greater part of the town.
All this happened on a Friday, which was the second day before
the nones of August.

A.D. 1117.  All this year remained the King Henry, in Normandy,
on account of the hostility of the King of France and his other
neighbours.  And in the summer came the King of France and the
Earl of Flanders with him with an army into Normandy.  And having
stayed therein one night, they returned again in the morning
without fighting.  But Normandy was very much afflicted both by
the exactions and by the armies which the King Henry collected
against them.  This nation also was severely oppressed through
the same means, namely, through manifold exactions.  This year
also, in the night of the calends of December, were immoderate
storms with thunder, and lightning, and rain, and hail.  And in
the night of the third day before the ides of December was the
moon, during a long time of the night, as if covered with blood,
and afterwards eclipsed.  Also in the night of the seventeenth
day before the calends of January, was the heaven seen very red,
as if it were burning.  And on the octave of St. John the
Evangelist was the great earthquake in Lombardy; from the shock
of which many minsters, and towers, and houses fell, and did much
harm to men.  This was a very blighted year in corn, through the
rains that scarcely ceased for nearly all the year.  And the
Abbot Gilbert of Westminster died on the eighth day before the
ides of December; and Faritz, Abbot of Abingdon, on the seventh
day before the calends of March.  And in this same year....

A.D. 1118.  All this year abode the King Henry in Normandy on
account of the war of the King of France and the Earl of Anjou,
and the Earl of Flanders.  And the Earl of Flanders was wounded
in Normandy, and went so wounded into Flanders.  By this war was
the king much exhausted, and he was a great loser both in land
and money.  And his own men grieved him most, who often from him
turned, and betrayed him; and going over to his foes surrendered
to them their castles, to the injury and disappointment of the
king.  All this England dearly bought through the manifold guilds
that all this year abated not.  This year, in the week of the
Epiphany, there was one evening a great deal of lightning, and
thereafter unusual thunder.  And the Queen Matilda died at
Westminster on the calends of May; and there was buried.  And the
Earl Robert of Mellent died also this year.  In this year also,
on the feast of St. Thomas, was so very immoderately violent a
wind, that no man who was then living ever remembered any
greater; and that was everywhere seen both in houses and also in
trees.  This year also died Pope Paschalis; and John of Gaeta
succeeded to the popedom, whose other name was Gelasius.

A.D. 1119.  All this year continued the King Henry in Normandy;
and he was greatly perplexed by the hostility of the King of
France, and also of his own men, who with treachery deserted from
him, and oft readily betrayed him; until the two kings came
together in Normandy with their forces.  There was the King of
France put to flight, and all his best men taken.  And afterwards
many of King Henry's men returned to him, and accorded with him,
who were before, with their castellans, against him.  And some of
the castles he took by main strength.  This year went William,
the son of King Henry and Queen Matilda, into Normandy to his
father, and there was given to him, and wedded to wife, the
daughter of the Earl of Anjou.  On the eve of the mass of St.
Michael was much earth-heaving in some places in this land;
though most of all in Glocestershire and in Worcestershire.  In
this same year died the Pope Gelasius, on this side of the Alps,
and was buried at Clugny.  And after him the Archbishop of Vienna
was chosen pope, whose name was Calixtus.  He afterwards, on the
festival of St. Luke the Evangelist, came into France to Rheims,
and there held a council.  And the Archbishop Turstin of York
went thither; and, because that he against right, and against the
archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury, and against the king's will,
received his hood at the hands of the pope, the king interdicted
him from all return to England.  And thus he lost his
archbishopric, and with the pope went towards Rome.  In this year
also died the Earl Baldwin of Flanders of the wounds that he
received in Normandy.  And after him succeeded to the earldom
Charles, the son of his uncle by the father's side, who was son
of Cnute, the holy King of Denmark.

A.D. 1120.  This year were reconciled the King of England and the
King of France; and after their reconciliation all the King
Henry's own men accorded with him in Normandy, as well as the
Earl of Flanders and the Earl of Ponthieu.  From this time
forward the King Henry settled his castles and his land in
Normandy after his will; and so before Advent came to this land.
And in this expedition were drowned the king's two sons, William
and Richard, and Richard, Earl of Chester, and Ottuel his
brother, and very many of the king's household, stewards, and
chamberlains, and butlers. and men of various abodes; and with
them a countless multidude of very incomparable folk besides.
Sore was their death to their friends in a twofold respect: one,
that they so suddenly lost this life; the other, that few of
their bodies were found anywhere afterwards.  This year came that
light to the sepulchre of the Lord in Jerusalem twice; once at
Easter, and the other on the assumption of St. Mary, as credible
persons said who came thence.  And the Archbishop Turstin of York
was through the pope reconciled with the king, and came to this
land, and recovered his bishopric, though it was very undesirable
to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

A.D. 1121.  This year was the King Henry at Christmas at Bramton,
and afterwards, before Candlemas, at Windsor was given him to
wife Athelis; soon afterwards consecrated queen, who was daughter
of the Duke of Louvain.  And the moon was eclipsed in the night
of the nones of April, being a fortnight old.  And the king was
at Easter at Berkley; and after that at Pentecost he held a full
court at Westminster; and afterwards in the summer went with an
army into Wales.  And the Welsh came against him; and after the
king's will they accorded with him.  This year came the Earl of
Anjou from Jerusalem into his land; and soon after sent hither to
fetch his daughter, who had been given to wife to William, the
king's son.  And in the night of the eve of "Natalis Domini" was
a very violent wind over all this land, and that was in many
things evidently seen.

A.D. 1122.  In this year was the King Henry at Christmas in
Norwich, and at Easter in Northampton.  And in the Lent-tide
before that, the town of Glocester was on fire: the while that
the monks were singing their mass, and the deacon had begun the
gospel, "Praeteriens Jesus", at that very moment came the fire
from the upper part of the steeple, and burned all the minster,
and all the treasures that were there within; except a few books,
and three mass-hackles.  That was on the eighth day before the
ides of Marcia.  And thereafter, the Tuesday after Palm-Sunday,
was a very violent wind on the eleventh day before the calends of
April; after which came many tokens far and wide in England, and
many spectres were both seen and heard.  And the eighth night
before the calends of August was a very violent earthquake over
all Somersetshire, and in Glocestershire.  Soon after, on the
sixth day before the ides of September, which was on the festival
of St. Mary, (145) there was a very violent wind from the fore
part of the day to the depth of the night.  This same year died
Ralph, the Archbishop of Canterbury; that was on the thirteenth
day before the calends of November.  After this there were many
shipmen on the sea, and on fresh water, who said, that they saw
on the north-east, level with the earth, a fire huge and broad,
which anon waxed in length up to the welkin; and the welkin undid
itself in four parts, and fought against it, as if it would
quench it; and the fire waxed nevertheless up to the heaven.  The
fire they saw in the day-dawn; and it lasted until it was light
over all.  That was on the seventh day before the ides of
December.

A.D. 1123.  In this year was the King Henry, at Christmastide at
Dunstable, and there came to him the ambassadors of the Earl of
Anjou.  And thence he went to Woodstock; and his bishops and his
whole court with him.  Then did it betide on a Wednesday, which
was on the fourth day before the ides of January, that the king
rode in his deer-fold; (146) the Bishop Roger of Salisbury (147)
on one side of him, and the Bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the
other side of him.  And they rode there talking together.  Then
sank down the Bishop of Lincoln, and said to the king, "Lord
king, I die."  And the king alighted down from his horse, and
lifted him betwixt his arms, and let men bear him home to his
inn.  There he was soon dead; and they carried him to Lincoln
with great worship, and buried him before the altar of St. Mary.
And the Bishop of Chester, whose name was Robert Pecceth, buried
him.  Soon after this sent the king his writ over all England,
and bade all his bishops and his abbots and his thanes, that they
should come to his wittenmoot on Candlemas day at Glocester to
meet him: and they did so.  When they were there gathered
together, then the king bade them, that they should choose for
themselves an Archbishop of Canterbury, whomsoever they would,
and he would confirm it.  Then spoke the bishops among
themselves, and said that they never more would have a man of the
monastic order as archbishop over them.  And they went all in a
body to the king, and earnestly requested that they might choose
from the clerical order whomsoever they would for archbishop. 
And the king granted it to them.  This was all concerted before,
through the Bishop of Salisbury, and through the Bishop of
Lincoln ere he was dead; for that they never loved the rule of
monks, but were ever against monks and their rule.  And the prior
and the monks of Canterbury, and all the other persons of the
monastic order that were there, withstood it full two days; but
it availed nought: for the Bishop of Salisbury was strong, and
wielded all England, and opposed them with all his power and
might.  Then chose they a clerk, named William of Curboil.  He
was canon of a monastery called Chiche. (148)  And they brought
him before the king; and the king gave him the archbishopric. 
And all the bishops received him: but almost all the monks, and
the earls, and the thanes that were there, protested against him.
About the same time departed the earl's messengers (149) in
hostility from the king, reckless of his favour.  During the same
time came a legate from Rome, whose name was Henry.  He was abbot
of the monastery of St. John of Angeli; and he came after the
Rome-scot.  And he said to the king, that it was against right
that men should set a clerk over monks; and therefore they had
chosen an archbishop before in their chapter after right.  But
the king would not undo it, for the love of the Bishop of
Salisbury.  Then went the archbishop, soon after this, to
Canterbury; and was there received, though it was against their
will; and he was there soon blessed to bishop by the Bishop of
London, and the Bishop Ernulf of Rochester, and the Bishop
William Girard of Winchester, and the Bishop Bernard of Wales,
and the Bishop Roger of Salisbury.  Then, early in Lent, went
the archbishop to Rome, after his pall; and with him went the
Bishop Bernard of Wales; and Sefred, Abbot of Glastonbury; and
Anselm, Abbot of St. Edmund's bury; and John, Archdeacon of
Canterbury; and Gifard, who was the king's court-chaplain.  At
the same time went the Archbishop Thurstan of York to Rome,
through the behest of the pope, and came thither three days ere
the Archbishop of Canterbury came, and was there received with
much worship.  Then came the Archbishop of Canterbury, and was
there full seven nights ere they could come to a conference with
the pope.  That was, because the pope was made to understand that
he had obtained the archbishopric against the monks of the
minster, and against right.  But that overcame Rome, which
overcometh all the world; that is, gold and silver.  And the pope
softened, and gave him his pall.  And the archbishop (of York)
swore him subjection, in all those things, which the pope
enjoined him, by the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul; and the
pope then sent him home with his blessing.  The while that the
archbishop was out of the land, the king gave the bishopric of
Bath to the Queen's chancellor, whose name was Godfrey.  He was
born in Louvain.  That was on the Annunciation of St. Mary, at
Woodstock.  Soon after this went the king to Winchester, and was
all Easter-tide there.  And the while that he was there, gave he
the bishopric of Lincoln to a clerk hight Alexander.  He was
nephew of the Bishop of Salisbury.  This he did all for the love
of the bishop.  Then went the king thence to Portsmouth, and lay
there all over Pentecost week.  Then, as soon as he had a fair
wind, he went over into Normandy; and meanwhile committed all
England to the guidance and government of the Bishop Roger of
Salisbury.  Then was the king all this year (150) in Normandy.
And much hostility arose betwixt him and his thanes; so that the
Earl Waleram of Mellent, and Hamalric, and Hugh of Montfort, and
William of Romare, and many others, went from him, and held their
castles against him.  And the king strongly opposed them: and
this same year he won of Waleram his castle of Pont-Audemer, and
of Hugh that of Montfort; and ever after, the longer he stayed,
the better he sped.  This same year, ere the Bishop of Lincoln
came to his bishopric, almost all the borough of Lincoln was
burned, and numberless folks, men and women, were consumed: and
so much harm was there done as no man could describe to another.
That was on the fourteenth day before the calends of June.

A.D. 1124.  All this year was the King Henry in Normandy.  That
was for the great hostility that he had with the King Louis of
France, and with the Earl of Anjou, and most of all with his own
men.  Then it happened, on the day of the Annunciation of St.
Mary, that the Earl Waleram of Mellent went from one of his
castles called Belmont to another called Watteville.  With him
went the steward of the King of France, Amalric, and Hugh the son
of Gervase, and Hugh of Montfort, and many other good knights.
Then came against them the king's knights from all the castles
that were thereabout, and fought with them, and put them to
flight, and took the Earl Waleram, and Hugh, the son of Gervase,
and Hugh of Montfort, and five and twenty other knights, and
brought them to the king.  And the king committed the Earl
Waleram, and Hugh, the son of Gervase, to close custody in the
castle at Rouen; but Hugh of Montfort he sent to England, and
ordered him to be secured with strong bonds in the castle at
Glocester.  And of the others as many as he chose he sent north
and south to his castles in captivity.  After this went the king,
and won all the castles of the Earl Waleram that were in
Normandy, and all the others that his enemies held against him.
All this hostility was on account of the son of the Earl Robert
of Normandy, named William.  This same William had taken to wife
the younger daughter of Fulke, Earl of Anjou: and for this reason
the King of France and all the earls held with him, and all the
rich men; and said that the king held his brother Robert
wrongfully in captivity, and drove his son William unjustly out
of Normandy.  This same year were the seasons very unfavourable
in England for corn and all fruits; so that between Christmas and
Candlemas men sold the acre-seed of wheat, that is two seedlips,
for six shillings; and the barley, that is three seedlips, for
six shillings also; and the acre-seed of oats, that is four
seedlips, for four shillings.  That was because that corn was
scarce; and the penny was so adulterated, (151) that a man who
had a pound at a market could not exchange twelve pence thereof
for anything.  In this same year died the blessed Bishop Ernulf
of Rochester, who before was Abbot of Peterborough.  That was on
the ides of March.  And after this died the King Alexander of
Scotland, on the ninth day before the calends of May.  And David
his brother, who was Earl of Northamptonshire, succeeded to the
kingdom; and had both together, the kingdom of Scotland and the
earldom in England.  And on the nineteenth day before the calends
of January died the Pope of Rome, whose name was Calixtus, and
Honorius succeeded to the popedom.  This same year, after St.
Andrew's mass, and before Christmas, held Ralph Basset and the
king's thanes a wittenmoot in Leicestershire, at Huncothoe, and
there hanged more thieves than ever were known before; that is,
in a little while, four and forty men altogether; and despoiled
six men of their eyes and of their testicles.  Many true men said
that there were several who suffered very unjustly; but our Lord
God Almighty, who seeth and knoweth every secret, seeth also that
the wretched people are oppressed with all unrighteousness. 
First they are bereaved of their property, and then they are
slain.  Full heavy year was this.  The man that had any property,
was bereaved of it by violent guilds and violent moots.  The man
that had not, was starved with hunger.

A.D. 1125.  In this year sent the King Henry, before Christmas,
from Normandy to England, and bade that all the mint-men that
were in England should be mutilated in their limbs; that was,
that they should lose each of them the right hand, and their
testicles beneath.  This was because the man that had a pound
could not lay out a penny at a market.  And the Bishop Roger of
Salisbury sent over all England, and bade them all that they
should come to Winchester at Christmas.  When they came thither,
then were they taken one by one, and deprived each of the right
hand and the testicles beneath.  All this was done within the
twelfth-night.  And that was all in perfect justice, because that
they had undone all the land with the great quantity of base coin
that they all bought.  In this same year sent the Pope of Rome to
this land a cardinal, named John of Crema.  He came first to the
king in Normandy, and the king received him with much worship. 
He betook himself then to the Archbishop William of Canterbury;
and he led him to Canterbury; and he was there received with
great veneration, and in solemn procession.  And he sang the high
mass on Easter day at the altar of Christ.  Afterwards he went
over all England, to all the bishoprics and abbacies that were in
this land; and in all he was received with respect.  And all gave
him many and rich gifts.  And afterwards he held his council in
London full three days, on the Nativity of St. Mary in September,
with archbishops, and diocesan bishops, and abbots, the learned
and the lewd; (152) and enjoined there the same laws that
Archbishop Anselm had formerly enjoined, and many more, though it
availed little.  Thence he went over sea soon after Michaelmas,
and so to Rome; and (with him) the Archbishop William of
Canterbury, and the Archbishop Thurstan of York, and the Bishop
Alexander of Lincoln, and the Bishop J. of Lothian, and the Abbot
G. of St. Alban's; and were there received by the Pope Honorius
with great respect; and continued there all the winter.  In this
same year was so great a flood on St. Laurence's day, that many
towns and men were overwhelmed, and bridges broken down, and corn
and meadows spoiled withal; and hunger and qualm (153) in men and
in cattle; and in all fruits such unseasonableness as was not
known for many years before.  And this same year died the Abbot
John of Peterborough, on the second day before the ides of
October.

A.D. 1126.  All this year was the King Henry in Normandy -- all
till after harvest.  Then came he to this land, betwixt the
Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas.  With him came the queen,
and his daughter, whom he had formerly given to the Emperor Henry
of Lorrain to wife.  And he brought with him the Earl Waleram,
and Hugh, the son of Gervase.  And the earl he sent to
Bridgenorth in captivity: and thence he sent him afterwards to
Wallingford; and Hugh to Windsor, whom he ordered to be kept in
strong bonds.  Then after Michaelmas came David, the king of the
Scots, from Scotland to this land; and the King Henry received
him with great worship; and he continued all that year in this
land.  In this year the king had his brother Robert taken from
the Bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him to his son
Robert, Earl of Glocester, and had him led to Bristol, and there
put into the castle.  That was all done through his daughter's
counsel, and through David, the king of the Scots, her uncle.

A.D. 1127.  This year held the King Henry his court at Christmas
in Windsor.  There was David the king of the Scots, and all the
head men that were in England, learned and lewd.  And there he
engaged the archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and earls, and
all the thanes that were there, to swear England and Normandy
after his day into the hands of his daughter Athelicia, who was
formerly the wife of the Emperor of Saxony.  Afterwards he sent
her to Normandy; and with her went her brother Robert, Earl of
Glocester, and Brian, son of the Earl Alan Fergan; (154) and he
let her wed the son of the Earl of Anjou, whose name was Geoffry
Martel.  All the French and English, however, disapproved of
this; but the king did it for to have the alliance of the Earl
of Anjou, and for to have help against his nephew William.  In
the Lent-tide of this same year was the Earl Charles of Flanders
slain in a church, as he lay there and prayed to God, before the
altar, in the midst of the mass, by his own men.  And the King of
France brought William, the son of the Earl of Normandy, and gave
him the earldom; and the people of that land accepted him.  This
same William had before taken to wife the daughter of the Earl of
Anjou; but they were afterwards divorced on the plea of
consanguinity.  This was all through the King Henry of England.
Afterwards took he to wife the sister of the king's wife of
France; and for this reason the king gave him the earldom of
Flanders.  This same year he (155) gave the abbacy of
Peterborough to an abbot named Henry of Poitou, who retained in
hand his abbacy of St. John of Angeli; but all the archbishops
and bishops said that it was against right, and that he could not
have two abbacies on hand.  But the same Henry gave the king to
understand, that he had relinquished his abbacy on account of the
great hostility that was in the land; and that he did through the
counsel and leave of the Pope of Rome, and through that of the
Abbot of Clugny, and because he was legate of the Rome-scot. 
But, nevertheless, it was not so; for he would retain both in
hand; and did so as long as God's will was.  He was in his
clerical state Bishop of Soissons; afterwards monk of Clugny; and
then prior in the same monastery.  Afterwards he became prior of
Sevigny; and then, because he was a relation of the King of
England, and of the Earl of Poitou, the earl gave him the abbacy
of St. John's minster of Angeli.  Afterwards, through his great
craft, he obtained the archbishopric of Besancon; and had it in
hand three days; after which he justly lost it, because he had
before unjustly obtained it.  Afterwards he procured the
bishopric of Saintes; which was five miles from his abbey.  That
he had full-nigh a week (156) in hand; but the Abbot of Clugny
brought him thence, as he before did from Besancon.  Then he
bethought him, that, if he could be fast-rooted in England, he
might have all his will.  Wherefore he besought the king, and
said unto him, that he was an old man -- a man completely broken
-- that he could not brook the great injustice and the great
hostility that were in their land: and then, by his own
endearours, and by those of all his friends, he earnestly and
expressly entreated for the abbacy of Peterborough.  And the king
procured it for him, because he was his relation, and because he
was the principal person to make oath and bear witness when the
son of the Earl of Normandy and the daughter of the Earl of Anjou
were divorced on the plea of consanguinity.  Thus wretchedly was
the abbacy given away, betwixt Christmas and Candlemas, at
London; and so he went with the King to Winchester, and thence he
came to Peterborough, and there he dwelt (157) right so as a
drone doth in a hive.  For as the drone fretteth and draggeth
fromward all that the bees drag toward [the hive], so did he. --
All that he might take, within and without, of learned and lewd,
so sent he over sea; and no good did there -- no good left there.
Think no man unworthily that we say not the truth; for it was
fully known over all the land: that, as soon as he came thither,
which was on the Sunday when men sing "Exurge quare o D-- etc."
immediately after, several persons saw and heard many huntsmen
hunting.  The hunters were swarthy, and huge, and ugly; and their
hounds were all swarthy, and broad-eyed, and ugly.  And they rode
on swarthy horses, and swarthy bucks.  This was seen in the very
deer-fold in the town of Peterborough, and in all the woods from
that same town to Stamford.  And the monks heard the horn blow
that they blew in the night.  Credible men, who watched them in
the night, said that they thought there might well be about
twenty or thirty horn-blowers.  This was seen and heard from the
time that he (158) came thither, all the Lent-tide onward to
Easter.  This was his entry; of his exit we can as yet say
nought.  God provide.

A.D. 1128.  All this year was the King Henry in Normandy, on
account of the hostility that was between him and his nephew, the
Earl of Flanders.  But the earl was wounded in a fight by a
swain; and so wounded he went to the monastery of St. Bertin;
where he soon became a monk, lived five days afterwards, then
died, and was there buried.  God honour his soul.  That was on
the sixth day before the calends of August.  This same year died
the Bishop Randulph Passeflambard of Durham; and was there buried
on the nones of September.  And this same year went the aforesaid
Abbot Henry home to his own minster at Poitou by the king's
leave.  He gave the king to understand, that he would withal
forgo that minster, and that land, and dwell with him in England,
and in the monastery of Peterborough.  But it was not so
nevertheless.  He did this because he would be there, through his
crafty wiles, were it a twelvemonth or more, and come again
afterwards.  May God Almighty extend his mercy over that wretched
place.  This same year came from Jerusalem Hugh of the Temple to
the king in Normandy; and the king received him with much honour,
and gave him rich presents in gold and in silver.  And afterwards
he sent him into England; and there he was received by all good
men, who all gave him presents, and in Scotland also: and by him
they sent to Jerusalem much wealth withal in gold and in silver.
And he invited folk out to Jerusalem; and there went with him and
after him more people than ever did before, since that the first
expedition was in the day of Pope Urban.  Though it availed
little; for he said, that a mighty war was begun between the
Christians and the heathens; but when they came thither, then was
it nought but leasing. (159)  Thus pitifully was all that people
swinked. (160)

A.D. 1129.  In this year sent the King to England after the Earl
Waleram, and after Hugh, the son of Gervase.  And they gave
hostages for them.  And Hugh went home to his own land in France;
but Waleram was left with the king: and the king gave him all his
land except his castle alone.  Afterwards came the king to
England within the harvest: and the earl came with him: and they
became as good friends as they were foes before.  Soon after, by
the king's counsel, and by his leave, sent the Archbishop William
of Canterbury over all England, and bade bishops, and abbots, and
archdeacons, and all the priors, monks, and canons, that were in
all the cells in England, and all who had the care and
superintendence of christianity, that they should all come to
London at Michaelmas, and there should speak of all God's rights.
When they came thither, then began the moot on Monday, and
continued without intermission to the Friday.  When it all came
forth, then was it all found to be about archdeacons' wives, and
about priests' wives; that they should forgo them by St. Andrew's
mass; and he who would not do that, should forgo his church, and
his house, and his home, and never more have any calling thereto.
This bade the Archbishop William of Canterbury, and all the
diocesan bishops that were then in England, but the king gave
them all leave to go home.  And so they went home; and all the
ordinances amounted to nothing.  All held their wives by the
king's leave as they did before.  This same year died the Bishop
William Giffard of Winchester; and was there buried, on the
eighth day before the calends of February.  And the King Henry
gave the bishopric after Michaelmas to the Abbot Henry of
Glastonbury, his nephew, and he was consecrated bishop by the
Archbishop William of Canterbury on the fifteenth day before the
calends of December.  This same year died Pope Honorius.  Ere he
was well dead, there were chosen two popes.  The one was named
Peter, who was monk of Clugny, and was born of the richest men of
Rome; and with him held those of Rome, and the Duke of Sicily.
The other was Gregory: he was a clerk, and was driven out of Rome
by the other pope, and by his kinsmen.  With him held the Emperor
of Saxony, and the King of France, and the King Henry of England,
and all those on this side of the Alps.  Now was there such
division in Christendom as never was before.  May Christ consult
for his wretched folk.  This same year, on the night of the mass
of St. Nicholas, a little before day, there was a great
earthquake.

A.D. 1130.  This year was the monastery of Canterbury consecrated
by the Archbishop William, on the fourth day before the nones of
May.  There were the Bishops John of Rochester, Gilbert Universal
of London, Henry of Winchester, Alexander of Lincoln, Roger of
Salisbury, Simon of Worcester, Roger of Coventry, Geoffry of
Bath, Evrard of Norwich, Sigefrith of Chichester, Bernard of St.
David's, Owen of Evreux in Normandy, John of Sieyes.  On the
fourth day after this was the King Henry in Rochester, when the
town was almost consumed by fire; and the Archbishop William
consecrated the monastery of St. Andrew, and the aforesaid
bishops with him.  And the King Henry went over sea into Normandy
in harvest.  This same year came the Abbot Henry of Angeli after
Easter to Peterborough, and said that he had relinquished that
monastery (161) withal.  After him came the Abbot of Clugny,
Peter by name, to England by the king's leave; and was received
by all, whithersoever he came, with much respect.  To
Peterborough he came; and there the Abbot Henry promised him that
he would procure him the minster of Peterborough, that it might
be subject to Clugny.  But it is said in the proverb,
          "The hedge abideth,
          that acres divideth."
May God Almighty frustrate evil designs.  Soon after this, went
the Abbot of Clugny home to his country.  This year was Angus
slain by the army of the Scots, and there was a great multitude
slain with him.  There was God's fight sought upon him, for that
he was all forsworn.

A.D. 1131.  This year, after Christmas, on a Monday night, at the
first sleep, was the heaven on the northern hemisphere (162) all
as if it were burning fire; so that all who saw it were so
dismayed as they never were before.  That was on the third day
before the ides of January.  This same year was so great a
murrain of cattle as never was before in the memory of man over
all England.  That was in neat cattle and in swine; so that in a
town where there were ten ploughs going, or twelve, there was not
left one: and the man that had two hundred or three hundred
swine, had not one left.  Afterwards perished the hen fowls; then
shortened the fleshmeat, and the cheese, and the butter.  May God
better it when it shall be his will.  And the King Henry came
home to England before harvest, after the mass of St. Peter "ad
vincula".  This same year went the Abbot Henry, before Easter,
from Peterborough over sea to Normandy, and there spoke with the
king, and told him that the Abbot of Clugny had desired him to
come to him, and resign to him the abbacy of Angeli, after which
he would go home by his leave.  And so he went home to his own
minster, and there remained even to midsummer day.  And the next
day after the festival of St. John chose the monks an abbot of
themselves, brought him into the church in procession, sang "Te
Deum laudamus", rang the bells, set him on the abbot's throne,
did him all homage, as they should do their abbot: and the earl,
and all the head men, and the monks of the minster, drove the
other Abbot Henry out of the monastery.  And they had need; for
in five-and-twenty winters had they never hailed one good day.
Here failed him all his mighty crafts.  Now it behoved him, that
he crope in his skin into every corner, if peradventure there
were any unresty wrench, (163) whereby he might yet once more
betray Christ and all Christian people.  Then retired he into
Clugny, where he was held so fast, that he could not move east or
west.  The Abbot of Clugny said that they had lost St. John's
minster through him, and through his great sottishness.  Then
could he not better recompense them; but he promised them, and
swore oaths on the holy cross, that if he might go to England he
should get them the minster of Peterborough; so that he should
set there the prior of Clugny, with a churchwarden, a treasurer,
and a sacristan: and all the things that were within the minster
and without, he should procure for them.  Thus he departed into
France; and there remained all that year.  Christ provide for the
wretched monks of Peterborough, and for that wretched place.  Now
do they need the help of Christ and of all Christian folk.

A.D. 1132.  This year came King Henry to this land.  Then came
Abbot Henry, and betrayed the monks of Peterborough to the king,
because he would subject that minster to Clugny; so that the king
was well nigh entrapped, and sent after the monks.  But through
the grace of God, and through the Bishop of Salisbury, and the
Bishop of Lincoln, and the other rich men that were there, the
king knew that he proceeded with treachery.  When he no more
could do, then would he that his nephew should be Abbot of
Peterborough.  But Christ forbade.  Not very long after this was
it that the king sent after him, and made him give up the Abbey
of Peterborough, and go out of the land.  And the king gave the
abbacy to a prior of St. Neot's, called Martin, who came on St.
Peter's mass-day with great pomp into the minster.

A.D. 1135.  In this year went the King Henry over sea at the
Lammas; and the next day, as he lay asleep on ship, the day
darkened over all lands, and the sun was all as it were a three
night old moon, and the stars about him at midday.  Men were very
much astonished and terrified, and said that a great event should
come hereafter.  So it did; for that same year was the king dead,
the next day after St. Andrew's mass-day, in Normandy.  Then was
there soon tribulation in the land; for every man that might,
soon robbed another.  Then his sons and his friends took his
body, and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading.  A
good man he was; and there was great dread of him.  No man durst
do wrong with another in his time.  Peace he made for man and
beast.  Whoso bare his burthen of gold and silver, durst no man
say ought to him but good.  Meanwhile was his nephew come to
England, Stephen de Blois.  He came to London, and the people of
London received him, and sent after the Archbishop William
Curboil, and hallowed him to king on midwinter day.  In this
king's time was all dissention, and evil, and rapine; for against
him rose soon the rich men who were traitors; and first of all
Baldwin de Redvers, who held Exeter against him.  But the king
beset it; and afterwards Baldwin accorded.  Then took the others,
and held their castles against him; and David, King of Scotland,
took to Wessington against him.  Nevertheless their messengers
passed between them; and they came together, and were settled,
but it availed little.

A.D. 1137.  This year went the King Stephen over sea to Normandy,
and there was received; for that they concluded that he should be
all such as the uncle was; and because he had got his treasure:
but he dealed it out, and scattered it foolishly.  Much had King
Henry gathered, gold and silver, but no good did men for his soul
thereof.  When the King Stephen came to England, he held his
council at Oxford; where he seized the Bishop Roger of Sarum, and
Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, and the chancellor Roger, his
nephew; and threw all into prison till they gave up their
castles.  When the traitors understood that he was a mild man,
and soft, and good, and no justice executed, then did they all
wonder.  They had done him homage, and sworn oaths, but they no
truth maintained.  They were all forsworn, and forgetful of their
troth; for every rich man built his castles, which they held
against him: and they filled the land full of castles.  They
cruelly oppressed the wretched men of the land with castle-works;
and when the castles were made, they filled them with devils and
evil men.  Then took they those whom they supposed to have any
goods, both by night and by day, labouring men and women, and
threw them into prison for their gold and silver, and inflicted
on them unutterable tortures; for never were any martyrs so
tortured as they were.  Some they hanged up by the feet, and
smoked them with foul smoke; and some by the thumbs, or by the
head, and hung coats of mail on their feet.  They tied knotted
strings about their heads, and twisted them till the pain went to
the brains.  They put them into dungeons, wherein were adders,
and snakes, and toads; and so destroyed them.  Some they placed
in a crucet-house; that is, in a chest that was short and narrow,
and not deep; wherein they put sharp stones, and so thrust the
man therein, that they broke all the limbs.  In many of the
castles were things loathsome and grim, called "Sachenteges", of
which two or three men had enough to bear one.  It was thus made:
that is, fastened to a beam; and they placed a sharp iron
[collar] about the man's throat and neck, so that he could in no
direction either sit, or lie, or sleep, but bear all that iron.
Many thousands they wore out with hunger.  I neither can, nor may
I tell all the wounds and all the pains which they inflicted on
wretched men in this land.  This lasted the nineteen winters
while Stephen was king; and it grew continually worse and worse.
They constantly laid guilds on the towns, and called it
"tenserie"; and when the wretched men had no more to give, then
they plundered and burned all the towns; that well thou mightest
go a whole day's journey and never shouldest thou find a man
sitting in a town, nor the land tilled.  Then was corn dear, and
flesh, and cheese, and butter; for none was there in the land.
Wretched men starved of hunger.  Some had recourse to alms, who
were for a while rich men, and some fled out of the land.  Never
yet was there more wretchedness in the land; nor ever did heathen
men worse than they did: for, after a time, they spared neither
church nor churchyard, but took all the goods that were therein,
and then burned the church and all together.  Neither did they
spare a bishop's land, or an abbot's, or a priest's, but
plundered both monks and clerks; and every man robbed another who
could.  If two men, or three, came riding to a town, all the
township fled for them, concluding them to be robbers.  The
bishops and learned men cursed them continually, but the effect
thereof was nothing to them; for they were all accursed, and
forsworn, and abandoned.  To till the ground was to plough the
sea: the earth bare no corn, for the land was all laid waste by
such deeds; and they said openly, that Christ slept, and his
saints.  Such things, and more than we can say, suffered we
nineteen winters for our sins.  In all this evil time held Abbot
Martin his abbacy twenty years and a half, and eight days, with
much tribulation; and found the monks and the guests everything
that behoved them; and held much charity in the house; and,
notwithstanding all this, wrought on the church, and set thereto
lands and rents, and enriched it very much, and bestowed
vestments upon it.  And he brought them into the new minster on
St. Peter's mass-day with much pomp; which was in the year, from
the incarnation of our Lord, 1140, and in the twenty-third from
the destruction of the place by fire.  And he went to Rome, and
there was well received by the Pope Eugenius; from whom he
obtained their privileges: -- one for all the lands of the abbey,
and another for the lands that adjoin to the churchyard; and, if
he might have lived longer, so he meant to do concerning the
treasury.  And he got in the lands that rich men retained by main
strength.  Of William Malduit, who held the castle of Rockingham,
he won Cotingham and Easton; and of Hugh de Walteville, he won
Hirtlingbury and Stanwick, and sixty shillings from Oldwinkle
each year.  And he made many monks, and planted a vine-yard, and
constructed many works, and made the town better than it was
before.  He was a good monk, and a good man; and for this reason
God and good men loved him.  Now we will relate in part what
happened in King Stephen's time.  In his reign the Jews of
Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter, and tortured him
after the same manner as our Lord was tortured; and on Long-
Friday (164) hanged him on a rood, in mockery of our Lord, and
afterwards buried him.  They supposed that it would be concealed,
but our Lord showed that he was a holy martyr.  And the monks
took him, and buried him with high honour in the minster.  And
through our Lord he worketh wonderful and manifold miracles, and
is called St. William.

A.D. 1138.  In this year came David, King of Scotland, with an
immense army to this land.  He was ambitious to win this land;
but against him came William, Earl of Albemarle, to whom the king
had committed York, and other borderers, with few men, and fought
against them, and routed the king at the Standard, and slew very
many of his gang.

A.D. 1140.  In this year wished the King Stephen to take Robert,
Earl of Gloucester, the son of King Henry; but he could not, for
he was aware of it.  After this, in the Lent, the sun and the day
darkened about the noon-tide of the day, when men were eating;
and they lighted candles to eat by.  That was the thirteenth day
before the kalends of April.  Men were very much struck with
wonder.  Thereafter died William, Archbishop of Canterbury; and
the king made Theobald archbishop, who was Abbot of Bec.  After
this waxed a very great war betwixt the king and Randolph, Earl
of Chester; not because he did not give him all that he could ask
him, as he did to all others; but ever the more he gave them, the
worse they were to him.  The Earl held Lincoln against the king,
and took away from him all that he ought to have.  And the king
went thither, and beset him and his brother William de Romare in
the castle.  And the earl stole out, and went after Robert, Earl
of Glocester, and brought him thither with a large army.  And
they fought strenuously on Candlemas day against their lord, and
took him; for his men forsook him and fled.  And they led him to
Bristol, and there put him into prison in close quarters.  Then
was all England stirred more than ere was, and all evil was in
the land.  Afterwards came the daughter of King Henry, who had
been Empress of Germany, and now was Countess of Anjou.  She came
to London; but the people of London attempted to take her, and
she fled, losing many of her followers.  After this the Bishop of
Winchester, Henry, the brother of King Stephen, spake with Earl
Robert, and with the empress, and swore them oaths, "that he
never more would hold with the king, his brother," and cursed all
the men that held with him, and told them, that he would give
them up Winchester; and he caused them to come thither.  When
they were therein, then came the king's queen with all her
strength, and beset them, so that there was great hunger therein.
When they could no longer hold out, then stole they out, and
fled; but those without were aware, and followed them, and took
Robert, Earl of Glocester, and led him to Rochester, and put him
there into prison; but the empress fled into a monastery.  Then
went the wise men between the king's friends and the earl's
friends; and settled so that they should let the king out of
prison for the earl, and the earl for the king; and so they did.
After this settled the king and Earl Randolph at Stamford, and
swore oaths, and plighted their troth, that neither should betray
the other.  But it availed nothing.  For the king afterwards took
him at Northampton, through wicked counsel, and put him into
prison; and soon after he let him out again, through worse
counsel, on the condition that he swore by the crucifix, and
found hostages, that he would give up all his castles.  Some he
gave up, and some gave he not up; and did then worse than he
otherwise would.  Then was England very much divided.  Some held
with the king, and some with the empress; for when the king was
in prison, the earls and the rich men supposed that he never more
would come out: and they settled with the empress, and brought
her into Oxford, and gave her the borough.  When the king was
out, he heard of this, and took his force, and beset her in the
tower. (165)  And they let her down in the night from the tower
by ropes.  And she stole out, and fled, and went on foot to
Wallingford.  Afterwards she went over sea; and those of Normandy
turned all from the king to the Earl of Anjou; some willingly,
and some against their will; for he beset them till they gave up
their castles, and they had no help of the king.  Then went
Eustace, the king's son, to France, and took to wife the sister
of the King of France.  He thought to obtain Normandy thereby;
but he sped little, and by good right; for he was an evil man.
Wherever he was, he did more evil than good; he robbed the lands,
and levied heavy guilds upon them.  He brought his wife to
England, and put her into the castle at...  (166)  Good woman she
was; but she had little bliss with him; and Christ would not that
he should long reign.  He therefore soon died, and his mother
also.  And the Earl of Anjou died; and his son Henry took to the
earldom.  And the Queen of France parted from the king; and she
came to the young Earl Henry; and he took her to wife, and all
Poitou with her.  Then went he with a large force into England,
and won some castles; and the king went against him with a much
larger force.  Nevertheless, fought they not; but the archbishop
and the wise men went between them, and made this settlement:
That the king should be lord and king while he lived, and after
his day Henry should be king: that Henry should take him for a
father; and he him for a son: that peace and union should be
betwixt them, and in all England.  This and the other provisions
that they made, swore the king and the earl to observe; and all
the bishops, and the earls, and the rich men.  Then was the earl
received at Winchester, and at London, with great worship; and
all did him homage, and swore to keep the peace.  And there was
soon so good a peace as never was there before.  Then was the
king stronger than he ever was before.  And the earl went over
sea; and all people loved him; for he did good justice, and made
peace.

A.D. 1154.  In this year died the King Stephen; and he was buried
where his wife and his son were buried, at Faversham; which
monastery they founded.  When the king died, then was the earl
beyond sea; but no man durst do other than good for the great
fear of him.  When he came to England, then was he received with
great worship, and blessed to king in London on the Sunday before
midwinter day.  And there held he a full court.  The same day
that Martin, Abbot of Peterborough, should have gone thither,
then sickened he, and died on the fourth day before the nones of
January; and the monks, within the day, chose another of
themselves, whose name was William de Walteville, (167) a good
clerk, and good man, and well beloved of the king, and of all
good men.  And all the monks buried the abbot with high honours.
And soon the newly chosen abbot, and the monks with him, went to
Oxford to the king.  And the king gave him the abbacy; and he
proceeded soon afterwards to Peterborough; where he remained with
the abbot, ere he came home.  And the king was received with
great worship at Peterborough, in full procession.  And so he was
also at Ramsey, and at Thorney, and at.... and at Spalding, and
at....


ENDNOTES:
(133) "Auvergne" at that time was an independent province, and
     formed no part of France.  About the middle of the
     fourteenth century we find Jane, Countess of Auvergne and
     Boulogne, and Queen of France, assisting in the dedication
     of the church of the Carmelites at Paris, together with
     Queen Jeanne d'Evreux, third wife and widow of Charles IV.,
     Blanche of Navarre, widow of Philip VI., and Jeanne de
     France, Queen of Navarre. -- Felib. "Histoire de Paris",
     vol. I, p. 356.
(134) A title taken from a town in Normandy, now generally
     written Moretaine, or Moretagne; de Moreteon, de Moritonio,
     Flor.
(135) "cena Domini" -- commonly called Maundy Thursday.
(136) Now Tinchebrai.
(137) Matilda, Mathilde, or Maud.
(138) Henry V. of Germany, the son of Henry IV.
(139) Or, "in the early part of the night," etc.
(140) That is, the territory was not a "fee simple", but subject
     to "taillage" or taxation; and that particular species is
     probably here intended which is called in old French "en
     queuage", an expression not very different from that in the
     text above.
(141) i.e. to the earldom of Flanders.
(142) "Mense Julio". -- Flor.
(143) We have still the form of saying "Nolo episcopari", when a
     see is offered to a bishop.
(144) i.e. East Bourne in Sussex; where the king was waiting for
     a fair wind to carry him over sea.
(145) The Nativity of the Virgin Mary.
(146) i.e. an inclosure or park for deer.  This is now called
     Blenheim Park, and is one of the few old parks which still
     remain in this country.
(147) This may appear rather an anticipation of the modern see of
     Salisbury, which was not then in existence; the borough of
     Old Saturn, or "Saresberie", being then the episcopal seat.
(148) St. Osythe, in Essex; a priory rebuilt A. 1118, for canons
of the Augustine order, of which there are considerable remains.
(149) i.e. Of the Earl of Anjou.
(150) The writer means, "the remainder of this year"; for the
     feast of Pentecost was already past, before the king left
     England.
(151) The pennies, or pence, it must be remembered, were of
     silver at this time.
(152) i.e. Clergy and laity.
(153) This word is still in use, but in a sense somewhat
     different; as qualms of conscience, etc.
(154) See an account of him in "Ord. Vit." 544.  Conan, another
     son of this Alan, Earl of Brittany, married a daughter of
     Henry I.
(155) i.e. Henry, King of England.
(156) "A se'nnight", the space of seven nights; as we still say,
     "a fortnight", i.e. the space of fourteen nights.  The
     French express the space of one week by "huit jours", the
     origin of the "octave" in English law; of two by "quinte
     jours".  So "septimana" signifies "seven mornings"; whence
     the French word "semaine".
(157) Literally, "woned".  Vid Chaucer, "Canterbury Tales", v.
     7745.  In Scotland, a lazy indolent manner of doing anything
     is called "droning".
(158) The Abbot Henry of Angeli.
(159) "Thou shalt destroy them that speak `leasing,'" etc.
     "Psalms".
(160) i.e. Vexed, harassed, fatigued, etc.  Milton has used the
     word in the last sense.
(161) The monastery of Angeli.
(162) Aurora Borealis, or the northern lights.
(163) "Any restless manoeuvre or stratagem."  Both words occur in
     Chaucer.  See "Troilus and Criseyde", v. 1355, and
     "Canterbury Tales", v. 16549.  The idea seems to be taken
     from the habits of destructive and undermining vermin.
(164) Now called "Good-Friday".
(165) The tower of the castle at Oxford, built by D'Oyley, which
     still remains.
(166) The MS. is here deficient.
(167) Or Vaudeville.

[End of "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"]

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