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Medieval and Classical Library

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 5: A.D. 1052 - 1069

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17



A.D. 1052.  This year, on the second day before the nones of
March, died the aged Lady Elfgiva Emma, the mother of King Edward
and of King Hardacnute, the relict of King Ethelred and of King
Knute; and her body lies in the old minster with King Knute.  At
this time Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in Herefordshire
till he came very nigh to Leominster; and they gathered against
him both the landsmen and the Frenchmen from the castle; and
there were slain very many good men of the English, and also of
the French.  This was on the same day thirteen years after that
Edwin was slain with his companions.  In the same year advised
the king and his council, that ships should be sent out to
Sandwich, and that Earl Ralph and Earl Odda should be appointed
headmen thereto.  Then went Earl Godwin out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck; and sailed forth one day before midsummer-eve,
till he came to the Ness that is to the south of Romney.  When it
came to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich, they went out
after the other ships; and a land-force was also ordered out
against the ships.  Meanwhile Earl Godwin had warning, and betook
himself into Pevensey: and the weather was so boisterous, that
the earls could not learn what had become of Earl Godwin.  But
Earl Godwin then went out again until he came back to Bruges; and
the other ships returned back again to Sandwich.  Then it was
advised that the ships should go back again to London, and that
other earls and other pilots should be appointed over them.  But
it was delayed so long that the marine army all deserted; and
they all betook themselves home.  When Earl Godwin understood
that, he drew up his sail and his ship: and they (70) went west
at once to the Isle of Wight; and landing there, they plundered
so long that the people gave them as much as they required of
them.  Then proceeded they westward until they came to Portland,
where they landed and did as much harm as they could possibly do.
Meanwhile Harold had gone out from Ireland with nine ships, and
came up at Potlock with his ships to the mouth of the Severn,
near the boundaries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there
plundered much.  The land-folk collected against him, both from
Somerset and from Devonshire: but he put them to flight, and slew
there more than thirty good thanes, besides others; and went soon
after about Penwithstert, where was much people gathered against
him; but he spared not to provide himself with meat, and went up
and slew on the spot a great number of the people -- seizing in
cattle, in men, and in money, whatever he could.  Then went he
eastward to his father; and they went both together eastward (71)
until they came to the Isle of Wight, where they seized whatever
had been left them before.  Thence they went to Pevensey, and got
out with them as many ships as had gone in there, and so
proceeded forth till they came to the Ness; (72) getting all the
ships that were at Romney, and at Hithe, and at Folkstone.  Then
ordered King Edward to fit out forty smacks that lay at Sandwich
many weeks, to watch Earl Godwin, who was at Bruges during the
winter; but he nevertheless came hither first to land, so as to
escape their notice.  And whilst he abode in this land, he
enticed to him all the Kentish men, and all the boatmen from
Hastings, and everywhere thereabout by the sea-coast, and all the
men of Essex and Sussex and Surrey, and many others besides. 
Then said they all that they would with him live or die.  When
the fleet that lay at Sandwich had intelligence about Godwin's
expedition, they set sail after him; but he escaped them, and
betook himself wherever he might: and the fleet returned to
Sandwich, and so homeward to London.  When Godwin understood that
the fleet that lay at Sandwich was gone home, then went he back
again to the Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast
so long that they came together -- he and his son Earl Harold.
But they did no great harm after they came together; save that
they took meat, and enticed to them all the land-folk by the sea-
coast and also upward in the land.  And they proceeded toward
Sandwich, ever alluring forth with them all the boatmen that they
met; and to Sandwich they came with an increasing army.  They
then steered eastward round to Dover, and landing there, took as
many ships and hostages as they chose, and so returned to
Sandwich, where they did the same; and men everywhere gave them
hostages and provisions, wherever they required them.  Then
proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the
ships landed on the Isle of Shepey, and did much harm there;
whence they steered to Milton Regis, and burned it all, and then
proceeded toward London after the earls.  When they came to
London, there lay the king and all his earls to meet them, with
fifty ships.  The earls (73) then sent to the king, praying that
they might be each possessed of those things which had been
unjustly taken from them.  But the king resisted some while; so
long that the people who were with the earl were very much
stirred against the king and against his people, so that the earl
himself with difficulty appeased them.  When King Edward
understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they
came very late.  And Godwin stationed himself continually before
London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark; where he abode
some time, until the flood (74) came up.  On this occasion he
also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all
that he would.  When he had arranged his whole expedition, then
came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through
the bridge by the south side.  The land-force meanwhile came
above, and arranged themselves by the Strand; and they formed
an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished
to surround the king's ships.  The king had also a great land-
force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of
them loth to fight with their own kinsmen -- for there was little
else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and
they were also unwilling that this land should be the more
exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other.
Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them,
who should settle peace on either side.  Godwin went up, and
Harold his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought
proper.  Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and
the wise men both within the town and without; who determined
that hostages should be given on either side.  And so they did.
When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen knew that, they took
horse; and went some west to Pentecost Castle, some north to
Robert's castle.  Archbishop Robert and Bishop Ulf, with their
companions, went out at Eastgate, slaying or else maiming many
young men, and betook themselves at once to Eadulf's-ness; where
he put himself on board a crazy ship, and went at once over sea,
leaving his pall and all Christendom here on land, as God
ordained, because he had obtained an honour which God disclaimed.
Then was proclaimed a general council without London; and all the
earls and the best men in the land were at the council.  There
took up Earl Godwin his burthen, and cleared himself there before
his lord King Edward, and before all the nation; proving that he
was innocent of the crime laid to his charge, and to his son
Harold and all his children.  And the king gave the earl and his
children, and all the men that were with him, his full
friendship, and the full earldom, and all that he possessed
before; and he gave the lady all that she had before.  Archbishop
Robert was fully proclaimed an outlaw, with all the Frenchmen;
because they chiefly made the discord between Earl Godwin and the
king: and Bishop Stigand succeeded to the archbishopric at
Canterbury.  At the council therefore they gave Godwin fairly his
earldom, so full and so free as he at first possessed it; and his
sons also all that they formerly had; and his wife and his
daughter so full and so free as they formerly had.  And they
fastened full friendship between them, and ordained good laws to
all people.  Then they outlawed all Frenchmen -- who before
instituted bad laws, and judged unrighteous judgment, and brought
bad counsels into this land -- except so many as they concluded
it was agreeable to the king to have with him, who were true to
him and to all his people.  It was with difficulty that Bishop
Robert, and Bishop William, and Bishop Ulf, escaped with the
Frenchmen that were with them, and so went over sea.  Earl
Godwin, and Harold, and the queen, sat in their stations.  Sweyne
had before gone to Jerusalem from Bruges, and died on his way
home at Constantinople, at Michaelmas.  It was on the Monday
after the festival of St. Mary, that Godwin came with his ships
to Southwark: and on the morning afterwards, on the Tuesday, they
were reconciled as it stands here before recorded.  Godwin then
sickened soon after he came up, and returned back.  But he made
altogether too little restitution of God's property, which he
acquired from many places.  At the same time Arnwy, Abbot of
Peterborough, resigned his abbacy in full health; and gave it to
the monk Leofric, with the king's leave and that of the monks;
and the Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight winters.  The Abbot
Leofric gilded the minster, so that it was called Gildenborough;
and it then waxed very much in land, and in gold, and in silver.

((A.D. 1052.  This year died Alfric, Archbishop of York, a very
pious man, and wise.  And in the same year King Edward abolished
the tribute, which King Ethelred had before imposed: that was in
the nine-and-thirtieth year after he had begun it.  That tax
distressed all the English nation during so long a time, as it
has been written; that was ever before other taxes which were
variously paid, and wherewith the people were manifestly
distressed.  In the same year Eustace [Earl of Boulougne] landed
at Dover: he had King Edward's sister to wife.  Then went his men
inconsiderately after quarters, and a certain man of the town
they slew; and another man of the town their companion; so that
there lay seven of his companions.  And much harm was there done
on either side, by horse and also by weapons, until the people
gathered together: and then they fled away until they came to the
king at Gloucester; and he gave them protection.  When Godwin,
the earl, understood that such things should have happened in his
earldom, then began he to gather together people over all his
earldom, (75) and Sweyn, the earl, his son, over his, and Harold,
his other son, over his earldom; and they all drew together in
Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a great force and countless, all
ready for battle against the king, unless Eustace were given up,
and his men placed in their hands, and also the Frenchmen who
were in the castle.  This was done seven days before the latter
mass of St. Mary.  Then was King Edward sitting at Gloucester. 
Then sent he after Leofric the earl [Of Mercia] and north after
Siward the earl [Of Northumbria] and begged their forces.  And
then they came to him; first with a moderate aid, but after they
knew how it was there, in the south, then sent they north over
all their earldoms, and caused to be ordered out a large force
for the help of their lord; and Ralph, also, over his earldom:
and then came they all to Gloucester to help the king, though it
might be late.  Then were they all so united in opinion with the
king that they would have sought out Godwin's forces if the king
had so willed.  Then thought some of them that it would be a
great folly that they should join battle; because there was
nearly all that was most noble in England in the two armies, and
they thought that they should expose the land to our foes, and
cause great destruction among ourselves.  Then counselled they
that hostages should be given mutually; and they appointed a term
at London, and thither the people were ordered out over all this
north end, in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Godwin, the earl, and his sons were to come there
with their defence.  Then came they to Southwark, and a great
multitude with them, from Wessex; but his band continually
diminished the longer he stayed.  And they exacted pledges for
the king from all the thanes who were under Harold, the earl, his
son; and then they outlawed Sweyn, the earl, his other son.  Then
did it not suit him to come with a defence to meet the king, and
to meet the army which was with him.  Then went he by night away;
and the king on the morrow held a council, and, together with all
the army, declared him an outlaw, him and all his sons.  And he
went south to Thorney, and his wife, and Sweyn his son, and Tosty
and his wife, Baldwin's relation of Bruges, and Grith his son.
And Harold, the earl, and Leofwine, went to Bristol in the ship
which Sweyn, the earl, had before got ready for himself, and
provisioned.  And the king sent Bishop Aldred [Of Worcester] to
London with a force; and they were to overtake him ere he came on
ship-board: but they could not or they would not.  And he went
out from Avonmouth, and met with such heavy weather that he with
difficulty got away; and there he sustained much damage.  Then
went he forth to Ireland when fit weather came.  And Godwin, and
those who were with him, went from Thorney to Bruges, to
Baldwin's land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they might
therein best stow for each man.  It would have seemed wondrous to
every man who was in England if any one before that had said that
it should end thus; for he had been erewhile to that degree
exalted, as if he ruled the king and all England; and his sons
were earls and the king's darlings, and his daughter wedded and
united to the king: she was brought to Wherwell, and they
delivered her to the abbess.  Then, soon, came William, the earl
[Of Normandy], from beyond seas with a great band of Frenchmen;
and the king received him, and as many of his companions as it
pleased him; and let him away again.  This same year was given to
William, the priest, the bishopric of London, which before had
been given to Sparhafoc.))

((A.D. 1052.  This year died Elfgive, the lady, relict of King
Ethelred and of King Canute, on the second before the nones of
March.  In the same year Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in
Herefordshire, until he came very nigh to Leominster; and they
gathered against him, as well the landsmen as the Frenchmen of
the castle, and there were slain of the English very many good
men, and also of the Frenchmen; that was on the same day, on
which, thirteen years before, Eadwine had been slain by his
companions.))

((A.D. 1052.  In this year died Elgive Emma, King Edward's mother
and King Hardecanute's.  And in this same year, the king decreed,
and his council, that ships should proceed to Sandwich; and they
set Ralph, the earl. and Odda, the earl [Of Devon], as headmen
thereto.  Then Godwin, the earl, went out from Bruges with his
ships to Ysendyck, and left it one day before Midsummer's-mass
eve, so that he came to Ness, which is south of Romney.  Then
came it to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich; and they
then went out after the other ships, and a land-force was ordered
out against the ships.  Then during this, Godwin, the earl, was
warned, and then he went to Pevensey; and the weather was very
severe, so that the earls could not learn what was become of
Godwin, the earl.  And then Godwin, the earl, went out again,
until he came once more to Bruges; and the other ships returned
again to Sandwich.  And then it was decreed that the ships should
return once more to London, and that other earls and commanders
should be appointed to the ships.  Then was it delayed so long
that the ship-force all departed, and all of them went home. 
When Godwin, the earl, learned that, then drew he up his sail,
and his fleet, and then went west direct to the Isle of Wight,
and there landed and ravaged so long there, until the people
yielded them so much as they laid on them.  And then they went
westward until they came to Portland, and there they landed,
and did whatsoever harm they were able to do.  Then was Harold
come out from Ireland with nine ships; and then landed at
Porlock, and there much people was gathered against him; but he
failed not to procure himself provisions.  He proceeded further,
and slew there a great number of the people, and took of cattle,
and of men, and of property as it suited him.  He then went
eastward to his father; and then they both went eastward until
they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took that which was yet
remaining for them.  And then they went thence to Pevensey and
got away thence as many ships as were there fit for service, and
so onwards until he came to Ness, and got all the ships which
were in Romney, and in Hythe, and in Folkstone.  And then they
went east to Dover, and there landed, and there took ships and
hostages, as many as they would, and so went to Sandwich and did
"hand" the same; and everywhere hostages were given them, and
provisions wherever they desired.  And then they went to North-
mouth, and so toward London; and some of the ships went within
Sheppey, and there did much harm, and went their way to King's
Milton, and that they all burned, and betook themselves then
toward London after the earls.  When they came to London, there
lay the king and all the earls there against them, with fifty
ships.  Then the earls sent to the king, and required of him,
that they might be held worthy of each of those things which
had been unjustly taken from them.  Then the king, however,
resisted some while; so long as until the people who were with
the earl were much stirred against the king and against his
people, so that the earl himself with difficulty stilled the
people.  Then Bishop Stigand interposed with God's help, and the
wise men as well within the town as without; and they decreed
that hostages should be set forth on either side: and thus was it
done.  When Archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen learned that,
they took their horses and went, some west to Pentecost's castle,
some north to Robert's castle.  And Archbishop Robert and Bishop
Ulf went out at East-gate, and their companions, and slew and
otherwise injured many young men, and went their way to direct
Eadulf's-ness; and he there put himself in a crazy ship, and went
direct over sea, and left his pall and all Christendom here on
land, so as God would have it, inasmuch as he had before obtained
the dignity so as God would not have it.  Then there was a great
council proclaimed without London: and all the earls and the
chief men who were in this land were at the council.  There
Godwin bore forth his defence, and justified himself, before King
Edward his lord, and before all people of the land, that he was
guiltless of that which was laid against him, and against Harold
his son, and all his children.  And the king gave to the earl and
his children his full friendship, and full earldom, and all that
he before possessed, and to all the men who were with him.  And
the king gave to the lady [Editha] all that she before possessed.
And they declared Archbishop Robert utterly an outlaw, and all
the Frenchmen, because they had made most of the difference
between Godwin, the earl, and the king.  And Bishop Stigand
obtained the Archbishopric of Canterbury.  In this same time
Arnwy, Abbot of Peterborough, left the abbacy, in sound health,
and gave it to Leofric the monk, by leave of the king and of the
monks; and Abbot Arnwy lived afterwards eight years.  And Abbot
Leofric then (enriched) the minster, so that it was called the
Golden-borough.  Then it waxed greatly, in land, and in gold, and
in silver.))

((A.D. 1052.  And went so to the Isle of Wight, and there took
all the ships which could be of any service, and hostages, and
betook himself so eastward.  And Harold had landed with nine
ships at Porlock, and slew there much people, and took cattle,
and men, and property, and went his way eastward to his father,
and they both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkstone, to Dover,
to Sandwich, and ever they took all the ships which they found,
which could be of any service, and hostages, all as they
proceeded; and went then to London.))

A.D. 1053.  About this time was the great wind, on the mass-night
of St. Thomas; which did much harm everywhere.  And all the
midwinter also was much wind.  It was this year resolved to slay
Rees, the Welsh king's brother, because he did harm; and they
brought his head to Gloucester on the eve of Twelfth-day.  In
this same year, before Allhallowmas, died Wulfsy, Bishop of
Lichfield; and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb; and Aylward, Abbot of
Glastonbury; all within one month.  And Leofwine, Abbot of
Coventry, took to the bishopric at Lichfield; Bishop Aldred to
the abbacy at Winchcomb; and Aylnoth took to the abbacy at
Glastonbury.  The same year died Elfric, brother of Odda, at
Deerhurst; and his body resteth at Pershore.  In this year was
the king at Winchester, at Easter; and Earl Godwin with him, and
Earl Harold his son, and Tosty.  On the day after Easter sat he
with the king at table; when he suddenly sunk beneath against the
foot-rail, deprived of speech and of all his strength.  He was
brought into the king's chamber; and they supposed that it would
pass over: but it was not so.  He continued thus speechless and
helpless till the Thursday; when he resigned his life, on the
seventeenth before the calends of May; and he was buried at
Winchester in the old minster.  Earl Harold, his son, took to the
earldom that his father had before, and to all that his father
possessed; whilst Earl Elgar took to the earldom that Harold had
before.  The Welshmen this year slew a great many of the warders
of the English people at Westbury.  This year there was no
archbishop in this land: but Bishop Stigand held the see of
Canterbury at Christ church, and Kinsey that of York.  Leofwine
and Wulfwy went over sea, and had themselves consecrated bishops
there.  Wulfwy took to the bishopric which Ulf had whilst he was
living and in exile.

((A.D. 1053.  This year was the great wind on Thomas's-mass-
night, and also the whole midwinter there was much wind; and it
was decreed that Rees, the Welsh king's brother, should be slain,
because he had done harm; and his head was brought to Gloucester
on Twelfth-day eve.  And the same year, before All Hallows-mass,
died Wulfsy, Bishop of Lichfield, and Godwin, Abbot of Winchcomb,
and Egelward, Abbot of Clastonbury, all within one month, and
Leofwine succeeded to the Bishopric of Lichfield, and Bishop
Aidred [Of Worcester] took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egelnoth
succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury.  And the same year died
Elfric, Odda's brother at Deorhurst; and his body resteth at
Pershore.  And the same year died Godwin the earl; and he fell
ill as he sat with the king at Winchester.  And Harold his son
succeeded to the earldom which his father before held; and Elgar,
the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold before held.))

((A.D. 1053.  In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the
seventeenth before the kalends of May, and he is buried at
Winchester, in the Old-minster; and Harold, the earl, his son,
succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which his father had
held: and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which Harold
before held.))

A.D. 1054.  This year died Leo the holy pope, at Rome: and Victor
was chosen pope in his stead.  And in this year was so great loss
of cattle as was not remembered for many winters before.  This
year went Earl Siward with a large army against Scotland,
consisting both of marines and landforces; and engaging with the
Scots, he put to flight the King Macbeth; slew all the best in
the land; and led thence much spoil, such as no man before
obtained.  Many fell also on his side, both Danish and English;
even his own son, Osborn, and his sister's son, Sihward: and many
of his house-carls, and also of the king's, were there slain that
day, which was that of the Seven Sleepers.  This same year went
Bishop Aldred south over sea into Saxony, to Cologne, on the
king's errand; where he was entertained with great respect by the
emperor, abode there well-nigh a year, and received presents not
only from the court, but from the Bishop of Cologne and the
emperor.  He commissioned Bishop Leofwine to consecrate the
minster at Evesham; and it was consecrated in the same year, on
the sixth before the ides of October.  This year also died Osgod
Clapa suddenly in his bed, as he lay at rest.

((A.D. 1054.  This year went Siward the earl with a great army
into Scotland, both with a ship-force and with a landforce, and
fought against the Scots, and put to flight King Macbeth, and
slew all who were the chief men in the land, and led thence much
booty, such as no man before had obtained.  But his son Osborn,
and his sister's son Siward, and some of his house-carls, and
also of the king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven
Sleepers.  The same year went Bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea,
on the king's errand; and he was there received with much worship
by the emperor [Henry III], and there he dwelt well nigh a year;
and either gave him entertainment, both the Bishop of Cologne and
the emperor.  And he gave leave to Bishop Leofwine [Of Lichfield]
to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the sixth before the ides
of October.  In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed.  And
this year died St. Leo the pope; and Victor was chosen pope in
his stead.))


A.D. 1055.  This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies
within the minster at Galmanho, (76) which he had himself ordered
to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. O1ave, to
the honour of God and to all his saints.  Archbishop Kinsey
fetched his pall from Pope Victor.  Then, within a little time
after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights
before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was
outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against
him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of
the land.  And he was arraigned thereof before all that were
there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was
unintentional.  The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl
Siward formerly had, to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin.  Whereupon
Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he
went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships,
besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with
the armament, who received him on terms of amity.  And they
gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl
Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of
Hereford; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the
English people fled, because they were on horses.  The enemy then
made a great slaughter there -- about four hundred or five
hundred men; they on the other side none.  They went then to the
town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster (77) also
which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that
they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things
whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away.  Then an
army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh; (78) and
they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against
the Welsh, and there lay some time.  And Earl Harold caused the
dike to be dug about the town the while.  Meantime men began to
speak of peace; and Earl Harold and those who were with him came
to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between
them.  The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed;
and they gave him all that was taken from him before.  The fleet
returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar
promised them.  The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends
of November.  In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop,
soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute,
after he became infirm.

((A.D. 1055.  In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he
lies at Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be
built, and consecrated in God's and Olave's name.  And Tosty
succeeded to the earldom which he had held.  And Archbishop
Kynsey [Of York], fetched his pall from Pope Victor.  And soon
thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl,
well-nigh without guilt.  But he went to Ireland and to Wales,
and procured himself there a great force, and so went to
Hereford: but there came against him Ralph the earl, with a large
army, and with a slight conflict he put them to flight, and much
people slew in the flight: and they went then into Hereford-port,
and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster which Bishop
Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster, and
many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and
carried them away with them.  And when they had done the utmost
evil, this counsel was counselled: that Elgar the earl should be
inlawed, and be given his earldom, and all that had been taken
from him.  This ravaging happened on the 9th before the Kalends
of November.  In the same year died Tremerin the Welsh bishop [Of
St. David's] soon after that ravaging: and he was Bishop
Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm.))

((A.D. 1055.  In this year died Siward the earl: and then was
summoned a general council, seven days before Mid-lent; and they
outlawed Elgar the earl, because it was cast upon him that he was
a traitor to the king and to all the people of the land.  And he
made a confession of it before all the men who were there
gathered; though the word escaped him unintentionally.  And the
king gave the earldom to Tosty, son of Earl Godwin, which Siward
the earl before held.  And Elgar the earl sought Griffin's
protection in North-Wales.  And in this year Griffin and Elgar
burned St. Ethelbert's minster, and all the town of Hereford.))

A.D. 1056.  This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at
Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster; and his brother
Egelwine succeeded him.  The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the
fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at
Hereford.  To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-
priest.  He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a
bishop.  He abandoned his chrism and his rood -- his ghostly
weapons -- and took to his spear and to his sword, after his
bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh
king. (79)  But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and
Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the
rest fled.  This was eight nights before midsummer.  Difficult is
it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching
and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the
whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl
Harold, and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between
them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and
faithful viceroy to King Edward.  Then Bishop Eldred took to the
bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.
The same year died Cona the emperor; and Earl Odda, whose body
lies at Pershore, and who was admitted a monk before his end;
which was on the second before the calends of September; a good
man and virtuous and truly noble.

A.D. 1057.  This year came Edward Etheling, son of King Edmund,
to this land, and soon after died.  His body is buried within St.
Paul's minster at London.  He was brother's son to King Edward.
King Edmund was called Ironside for his valour.  This etheling
King Knute had sent into Hungary, to betray him; but he there
grew in favour with good men, as God granted him, and it well
became him; so that he obtained the emperor's cousin in marriage,
and by her had a fair offspring.  Her name was Agatha.  We know
not for what reason it was done, that he should see his relation,
King Edward.  Alas!  that was a rueful time, and injurious to all
this nation -- that he ended his life so soon after he came to
England, to the misfortune of this miserable people.  The same
year died Earl Leofric, on the second before the calends of
October; who was very wise before God, and also before the world;
and who benefited all this nation. (80)  He lies at Coventry
(81): and his son Elgar took to his territory.  This year died
Earl Ralph, on the twelfth before the calends of January; and
lies at Peterborough.  Also died Bishop Heca, in Sussex; and
Egelric was elevated to his see.  This year also died Pope
Victor; and Stephen was chosen pope, who was Abbot of Monut
Cassino.

((A.D. 1057.  In this year Edward Etheling, King Edmund's son,
came hither to land, and soon after died- and his body is buried
within St. Paul's minster at London.  And Pope Victor died, and
Stephen [IX.] was chosen pope: he was Abbot of Mont-Cassino.  And
Leofric the earl died, and Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom
which the father before held.))

A.D. 1058.  This year was Earl Elgar banished: but he soon came
in again by force, through Griffin's assistance: and a naval
armament came from Norway.  It is tedious to tell how it all fell
out.  In this same year Bishop Aldred consecrated the minster
church at Gloucester, which he himself had raised (82) to the
honour of God and St. Peter; and then went to Jerusalem (83) with
such dignity as no other man did before him, and betook himself
there to God.  A worthy gift he also offered to our Lord's
sepulchre; which was a golden chalice of the value of five marks,
of very wonderful workmanship.  In the same year died Pope
Stephen; and Benedict was appointed pope.  He sent hither the
pall to Bishop Stigand; who as archbishop consecrated Egelric a
monk at Christ church, Bishop of Sussex; and Abbot Siward Bishop
of Rochester.

((A.D. 1058.  This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was
consecrated pope: the same sent hither to land a pall to
Archbishop Stigand.  And in this year died Heca, Bishop of
Sussex; and Archbishop Stigand ordained Algeric, a monk at
Christchurch, Bishop of Sussex, and Abbot Siward Bishop of
Rochester.))

A.D. 1059.  This year was Nicholas chosen pope, who had been
Bishop of Florence; and Benedict was expelled, who was pope
before.  This year also was consecrated the steeple (84) at
Peterborough, on the sixteenth before the calends of November.

A.D. 1060.  This year was a great earthquake on the Translation
of St. Martin, and King Henry died in France.  Kinsey, Archbishop
of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and
he lies at Peterborough.  Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and
Walter to that of Herefordshire.  Dudoc also died, who was Bishop
of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

A.D. 1061.  This year went Bishop Aldred to Rome after his pall;
which he received at the hands of Pope Nicholas.  Earl Tosty and
his wife also went to Rome; and the bishop and the earl met with
great difficulty as they returned home.  In the same year died
Bishop Godwin at St. Martin's, (85) on the seventh before the
ides of March; and in the self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of
St. Augustine's, in the Easterweek, on the fourteenth before the
calends of May.  Pope Nicholas also died; and Alexander was
chosen pope, who was Bishop of Lucca.  When word came to the king
that the Abbot Wulfric was dead, then chose he Ethelsy, a monk of
the old minster, to succeed; who followed Archbishop Stigand, and
was consecrated abbot at Windsor on St. Augustine s mass-day.

((A.D. 1061.  In this year died Dudoc, Bishop of Somerset, and
Giso succeeded.  And in the same year died Godwin, Bishop of St.
Martin's, on the seventh before the ides of March.  And in the
self-same year died Wulfric, Abbot of St. Augustine's, within
the Easter week, on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.
When word came to the king that Abbot Wulfric was departed, then
chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Minster, who then
followed Archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbot at
Windsor, on St. Augustine's mass-day.))

A.D. 1063.  This year went Earl Harold, after mid-winter, from
Gloucester to Rhyddlan; which belonged to Griffin: and that
habitation he burned, with his ships and all the rigging
belonging thereto; and put him to flight.  Then in the gang-days
went Harold with his ships from Bristol about Wales; where he
made a truce with the people, and they gave him hostages.  Tosty
meanwhile advanced with a land-force against them, and plundered
the land.  But in the harvest of the same year was King Griffin
slain, on the nones of August, by his own men, through the war
that he waged with Earl Harold.  He was king over all the Welsh
nation.  And his head was brought to Earl Harold; who sent it to
the king, with his ship's head, and the rigging therewith.  King
Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Blethgent and
Rigwatle; who swore oaths, and gave hostages to the king and to
the earl, that they would be faithful to him in all things, ready
to aid him everywhere by water and land, and would pay him such
tribute from the land as was paid long before to other kings.

((A.D. 1063.  This year went Harold the earl, and his brother
Tosty the earl, as well with a land-force as a shipforce, into
Wales, and they subdued the land; and the people delivered
hostages to them, and submitted; and went afterwards and slew
their King Griffin, and brought to Harold his head: and he
appointed another king thereto.))

A.D. 1065.  This year, before Lammas, ordered Earl Harold his men
to build at Portskeweth in Wales.  But when he had begun, and
collected many materials, and thought to have King Edward there
for the purpose of hunting, even when it was all ready, came
Caradoc, son of Griffin, with all the gang that he could get, and
slew almost all that were building there; and they seized the
materials that were there got ready.  Wist we not who first
advised the wicked deed.  This was done on the mass-day of St.
Bartholomew.  Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in
Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed
their Earl Tosty; slaying all the men of his clan that they could
reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York,
with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere
there find.  They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and
chose him for their earl.  He went south with all the shire, and
with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he
came to Northampton; where his brother Edwin came to meet him
with the men that were in his earldom.  Many Britons also came
with him.  Harold also there met them; on whom they imposed an
errand to King Edward, sending also messengers with him, and
requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl.  This the
king granted; and sent back Harold to them, to Northampton, on
the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the
same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of
Knute.  But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton,
whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and
burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could
come at; which amounted to many thousands.  Many hundred men also
they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that
shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters.  Then
Earl Tosty and his wife, and all they who acted with him, went
south over sea with him to Earl Baldwin; who received them all:
and they were there all the winter.  About midwinter King Edward
came to Westminster, and had the minster there consecrated, which
he had himself built to the honour of God, and St. Peter, and all
God's saints.  This church-hallowing was on Childermas-day.  He
died on the eve of twelfth-day; and he was buried on twelfth-day
in the same minster; as it is hereafter said.
          Here Edward king, (86)
          of Angles lord,
          sent his stedfast
          soul to Christ.
          In the kingdom of God
          a holy spirit!
          He in the world here
          abode awhile,
          in the kingly throng
          of council sage.
          Four and twenty
          winters wielding
          the sceptre freely,
          wealth he dispensed.
          In the tide of health,
          the youthful monarch,
          offspring of Ethelred!
          ruled well his subjects;
          the Welsh and the Scots,
          and the Britons also,
          Angles and Saxons
          relations of old.
          So apprehend
          the first in rank,
          that to Edward all
          the noble king
          were firmly held
          high-seated men.
          Blithe-minded aye
          was the harmless king;
          though he long ere,
          of land bereft,
          abode in exile
          wide on the earth;
          when Knute o'ercame
          the kin of Ethelred,
          and the Danes wielded
          the dear kingdom
          of Engle-land.
          Eight and twenty
          winters' rounds
          they wealth dispensed.
          Then came forth
          free in his chambers,
          in royal array,
          good, pure, and mild,
          Edward the noble;
          by his country defended --
          by land and people.
          Until suddenly came
          the bitter Death
          and this king so dear
          snatched from the earth.
          Angels carried
          his soul sincere
          into the light of heaven.
          But the prudent king
          had settled the realm
          on high-born men --
          on Harold himself,
          the noble earl;
          who in every season
          faithfully heard
          and obeyed his lord,
          in word and deed;
          nor gave to any
          what might be wanted
          by the nation's king.
This year also was Earl Harold hallowed to king; but he enjoyed
little tranquillity therein the while that he wielded the
kingdom.

((A.D. 1065.  And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew's
mass-day.  And then, after Michael's-mass, all the thanes in
Yorkshire went to York, and there slew all Earl Tosty's household
servants whom they might hear of, and took his treasures: and
Tosty was then at Britford with the king.  And then, very soon
thereafter, was a great council at Northampton; and then at
Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude.  And there was Harold the
earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he
could not: but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and
outlawed, and all who with him lawlessness upheld, because he
robbed God first, and all those bereaved over whom he had power
of life and of land.  And they then took to themselves Morkar for
earl; and Tosty went then over sea, and his wife with him, to
Baldwin's land, and they took up their winter residence at St.
Omer's.))

A.D. 1066.  This year came King Harold from York to Westminster,
on the Easter succeeding the midwinter when the king (Edward)
died.  Easter was then on the sixteenth day before the calends of
May.  Then was over all England such a token seen as no man ever
saw before.  Some men said that it was the comet-star, which
others denominate the long-hair'd star.  It appeared first on the
eve called "Litania major", that is, on the eighth before the
calends off May; and so shone all the week.  Soon after this came
in Earl Tosty from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with as
large a fleet as he could get; and he was there supplied with
money and provisions.  Thence he proceeded, and committed
outrages everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, until
he came to Sandwich.  When it was told King Harold, who was in
London, that his brother Tosty was come to Sandwich, he gathered
so large a force, naval and military, as no king before collected
in this land; for it was credibly reported that Earl William from
Normandy, King Edward's cousin, would come hither and gain this
land; just as it afterwards happened.  When Tosty understood that
King Harold was on the way to Sandwich, he departed thence, and
took some of the boatmen with him, willing and unwilling, and
went north into the Humber with sixty skips; whence he plundered
in Lindsey, and there slew many good men.  When the Earls Edwin
and Morkar understood that, they came hither, and drove him from
the land.  And the boatmen forsook him.  Then he went to Scotland
with twelve smacks; and the king of the Scots entertained him,
and aided him with provisions; and he abode there all the summer.
There met him Harold, King of Norway, with three hundred ships.
And Tosty submitted to him, and became his man. (87)  Then came
King Harold (88) to Sandwich, where he awaited his fleet; for it
was long ere it could be collected: but when it was assembled, he
went into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer and the
autumn.  There was also a land-force every where by the sea,
though it availed nought in the end.  It was now the nativity of
St. Mary, when the provisioning of the men began; and no man
could keep them there any longer.  They therefore had leave to go
home: and the king rode up, and the ships were driven to London;
but many perished ere they came thither.  When the ships were
come home, then came Harald, King of Norway, north into the Tine,
unawares, with a very great sea-force -- no small one; that might
be, with three hundred ships or more; and Earl Tosty came to him
with all those that he had got; just as they had before said: and
they both then went up with all the fleet along the Ouse toward
York. (89)  When it was told King Harold in the south, after he
had come from the ships, that Harald, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty were come up near York, then went he northward by day and
night, as soon as he could collect his army.  But, ere King
Harold could come thither, the Earls Edwin and Morkar had
gathered from their earldoms as great a force as they could get,
and fought with the enemy. (90)  They made a great slaughter too;
but there was a good number of the English people slain, and
drowned, and put to flight: and the Northmen had possession of
the field of battle.  It was then told Harold, king of the
English, that this had thus happened.  And this fight was on the
eve of St. Matthew the apostle, which was Wednesday.  Then after
the fight went Harold, King of Norway, and Earl Tosty into York
with as many followers as they thought fit; and having procured
hostages and provisions from the city, they proceeded to their
ships, and proclaimed full friendship, on condition that all
would go southward with them, and gain this land.  In the midst
of this came Harold, king of the English, with all his army, on
the Sunday, to Tadcaster; where he collected his fleet.  Thence
he proceeded on Monday throughout York.  But Harald, King of
Norway, and Earl Tosty, with their forces, were gone from their
ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge; for that it was given them
to understand, that hostages would be brought to them there from
all the shire.  Thither came Harold, king of the English,
unawares against them beyond the bridge; and they closed together
there, and continued long in the day fighting very severely.
There was slain Harald the Fair-hair'd, King of Norway, and Earl
Tosty, and a multitude of people with them, both of Normans and
English; (91) and the Normans that were left fled from the
English, who slew them hotly behind; until some came to their
ships, some were drowned, some burned to death, and thus
variously destroyed; so that there was little left: and the
English gained possession of the field.  But there was one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English folk, so that they could not
pass over the bridge, nor complete the victory.  An Englishman
aimed at him with a javelin, but it availed nothing.  Then came
another under the bridge, who pierced him terribly inwards under
the coat of mail.  And Harold, king of the English, then came
over the bridge, followed by his army; and there they made a
great slaughter, both of the Norwegians and of the Flemings.  But
Harold let the king's son, Edmund, go home to Norway with all the
ships.  He also gave quarter to Olave, the Norwegian king's son,
and to their bishop, and to the earl of the Orkneys, and to all
those that were left in the ships; who then went up to our king,
and took oaths that they would ever maintain faith and friendship
unto this land.  Whereupon the King let them go home with twenty-
four ships.  These two general battles were fought within five
nights.  Meantime Earl William came up from Normandy into
Pevensey on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his
landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of
Hastings.  This was then told to King Harold; and he gathered a
large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore.
William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was
collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered
him with the men that would support him: and there was a great
slaughter made on either side.  There was slain King Harold, and
Leofwin his brother, and Earl Girth his brother, with many good
men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted
them for the sins of the nation.  Archbishop Aldred and the
corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar to
king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar
promised them that they would fight with them.  But the more
prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the
later and worse; as in the end it all fared.  This battle was
fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to
Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would
submit to him.  But when he found that they would not come to
him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came
since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he
overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred
came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls Edwin and Morkar,
and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need,
when the most harm was done.  It was very ill-advised that they
did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for
our sins.  And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he
promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in
the midst of this they plundered wherever they went.  Then on
midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at
Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ,
and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head,
that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best
did, if they would be faithful to him.  Neverrhetess he laid very
heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy,
taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of
Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar,
and Waltheof, and many other good men of England.  Bishop Odo and
Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely
through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever
since has evil increased very much.  May the end be good, when
God will!  In that same expedition (92) was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon
after, on the night of Allhallow-mass.  God honour his soul!  In
his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough.  He was
beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the
abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric,
who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and
that of Thorney.  He did so much good to the minster of
Peterborough, in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land,
as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him.  But now
was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough.  The monks then
chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man,
and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the
land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling
received him gladly.  When King William heard say that, he was
very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good
men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was
a good man.  He gave the king forty marks of gold for his
reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after -- only
three years.  Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to
the minster.  God have mercy on it!

((A.D. 1066.  This year died King Edward, and Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and one day.
And this year came William, and won England.  And in this year
Christ-Church [Canterbury] was burned.  And this year appeared a
comet on the fourteenth before the kalends of May.))

((A.D. 1066.  ...And then he [Tosty] went thence, and did harm
everywhere by the sea-coast where he could land, as far as
Sandwich.  Then was it made known to King Harold, who was in
London, that Tosty his brother was come to Sandwich.  Then
gathered he so great a ship-force, and also a land force, as no
king here in the land had before gathered, because it had been
soothly said unto him, that William the earl from Normandy, King
Edward's kinsman, would come hither and subdue this land: all as
it afterwards happened.  When Tosty learned that King Harold was 
on his way to Sandwich, then went he from Sandwich, and took some
of the boatmen with him, some willingly and some unwillingly; and
went then north into Humber, and there ravaged in Lindsey, and
there slew many good men.  When Edwin the earl and Morcar the
earl understood that, then came they thither, and drove him out
of the land.  And he went then to Scotland: and the king of Scots
protected him, and assisted him with provisions; and he there
abode all the summer.  Then came King Harold to Sandwich, and
there awaited his fleet, because it was long before it could be
gathered together.  And when his fleet was gathered together,
then went he into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer
and the harvest; and a land-force was kept everywhere by the sea,
though in the end it was of no benefit.  When it was the Nativity
of St. Mary, then were the men's provisions gone, and no man
could any longer keep them there.  Then were the men allowed to
go home, and the king rode up, and the ships were dispatched to
London; and many perished before they came thither.  When the
ships had reached home, then came King Harald from Norway, north
into Tyne, and unawares, with a very large ship-force, and no
small one; that might be, or more.  And Tosty the earl came to
him with all that he had gotten, all as they had before agreed;
and then they went both, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up
towards York.  Then was it made known to King Harold in the
south, as he was come from on ship-board, that Harald King of
Norway and Tosty the earl were landed near York.  Then went he
northward, day and night, as quickly as he could gather his
forces.  Then, before that King Harold could come thither, then
gathered Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl from their earldom
as great a force as they could get together; and they fought
against the army, and made great slaughter: and there was much of
the English people slain, and drowned, and driven away in flight;
and the Northmen had possession of the place of carnage.  And
this fight was on the vigil of St. Matthew the apostle, and it
was Wednesday.  And then, after the fight, went Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, into York, with as much people as
seemed meet to them.  And they delivered hostages to them from
the city, and also assisted them with provisions; and so they
went thence to their ships, and they agreed upon a full peace, so
that they should all go with him south, and this land subdue.
Then, during this, came Harold, king of the Angles, with all his
forces, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster, and there drew up his force,
and went then on Monday throughout York; and Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl, and their forces, were gone from
their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge, because it had been
promised them for a certainty, that there, from all the shire,
hostages should be brought to meet them.  Then came Harold, king
of the English, against them, unawares, beyond the bridge, and
they there joined battle, and very strenuously, for a long time
of the day, continued fighting: and there was Harald, King of
Norway, and Tosty the earl slain, and numberless of the people
with them, as well of the Northmen as of the English: and the
Northmen fled from the English.  Then was there one of the
Norwegians who withstood the English people, so that they might
not pass over the bridge, nor obtain the victory.  Then an
Englishman aimed at him with a javelin, but availed nothing; and
then came another under the bridge, and pierced him terribly
inwards under the coat of mail.  Then came Harold, king of the
English, over the bridge, and his forces onward with him, and
there made great slaughter, as well of Norwegians as of Flemings.
And the King's son, Edmund, Harold let go home to Norway, with
all the ships.))

((A.D. 1066.  In this year was consecrated the minster at
Westminster, on Childer-mass-day.  And King Edward died on the
eve of Twelfth-day; and he was buried on Twelfth-day within the
newly consecrated church at Westminster.  And Harold the earl
succeeded to the kingdom of England, even as the king had granted
it to him, and men also had chosen him thereto; and he was
crowned as king on Twelfth-day.  And that same year that he
became king, he went out with a fleet against William [Earl of
Normandy]; and the while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with
sixty ships.  Edwin the earl came with a land-force and drove him
out; and the boatmen forsook him.  And he went to Scotland with
twelve vessels; and Harald, the King of Norway, met him with
three hundred ships, and Tosty submitted to him; and they both
went into Humber, until they came to York.  And Morcar the earl,
and Edwin the earl, fought against them; and the king of the
Norwegians had the victory.  And it was made known to King Harold
how it there was done, and had happened; and he came there with a
great army of English men, and met him at Stanfordbridge, and
slew him and the earl Tosty, and boldly overcame all the army.
And the while, William the earl landed at Hastings, on St.
Michael's-day: and Harold came from the north, and fought against
him before all his army had come up: and there he fell, and his
two brothers, Girth and Leofwin; and William subdued this land.
And he came to Westminster, and Archbishop Aldred consecrated him
king, and men paid him tribute, delivered him hostages, and
afterwards bought their land.  And then was Leofric, Abbot of
Peterborough, in that same expedition; and there he sickened, and
came home, and was dead soon thereafter, on All-hallows-mass-
night; God be merciful to his soul!  In his day was all bliss and
all good in Peterborough; and he was dear to all people, so that
the king gave to St. Peter and to him the abbacy at Burton, and
that of Coventry, which Leofric the earl, who was his uncle,
before had made, and that of Crowland, and that of Thorney.  And
he conferred so much of good upon the minster of Peterborough, in
gold, and in silver, and in vestments, and in land, as never any
other did before him, nor any after him.  After, Golden-borough
became a wretched borough.  Then chose the monks for abbot Brand
the provost, by reason that he was a very good man, and very
wise, and sent him then to Edgar the etheling, by reason that the
people of the land supposed that he should become king: and the
etheling granted it him then gladly.  When King William heard say
that, then was he very wroth, and said that the abbot had
despised him.  Then went good men between them, and reconciled
them, by reason that the abbot was a good man.  Then gave he the
king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation; and then
thereafter, lived he a little while, but three years.  After that
came every tribulation and every evil to the minster.  God have
mercy on it!))

A.D. 1067.  This year came the king back again to England on St.
Nicholas's day; and the same day was burned the church of Christ
at Canterbury.  Bishop Wulfwy also died, and is buried at his see
in Dorchester.  The child Edric and the Britons were unsettled
this year, and fought with the castlemen at Hereford, and did
them much harm.  The king this year imposed a heavy guild on the
wretched people; but, notwithstanding, let his men always plunder
all the country that they went over; and then he marched to
Devonshire, and beset the city of Exeter eighteen days.  There
were many of his army slain; out he had promised them well, and
performed ill; and the citizens surrendered the city because the
thanes had betrayed them.  This summer the child Edgar departed,
with his mother Agatha, and his two sisters, Margaret and
Christina, and Merle-Sweyne, and many good men with them; and
came to Scotland under the protection of King Malcolm, who
entertained them all.  Then began King Malcolm to yearn after the
child's sister, Margaret, to wife; but he and all his men long
refused; and she also herself was averse, and said that she would
neither have him nor any one else, if the Supreme Power would
grant, that she in her maidenhood might please the mighty Lord
with a carnal heart, in this short life, in pure continence.  The
king, however, earnestly urged her brother, until he answered
Yea.  And indeed he durst not otherwise; for they were come into
his kingdom.  So that then it was fulfilled, as God had long ere
foreshowed; and else it could not be; as he himself saith in his
gospel: that "not even a sparrow on the ground may fall, without
his foreshowing."  The prescient Creator wist long before what he
of her would have done; for that she should increase the glory of
God in this land, lead the king aright from the path of error,
bend him and his people together to a better way, and suppress
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed: all which she
afterwards did.  The king therefore received her, though it was
against her will, and was pleased with her manners, and thanked
God, who in his might had given him such a match.  He wisely
bethought himself, as he was a prudent man, and turned himself to
God, and renounced all impurity; accordingly, as the apostle
Paul, the teacher of all the gentries, saith: "Salvabitur vir
infidelis per mulierem fidelem; sic et mulier infidelis per virum
fidelem," etc.: that is in our language, "Full oft the
unbelieving husband is sanctified and healed through the
believing wife, and so belike the wife through the believing
husband."  This queen aforesaid performed afterwards many useful
deeds in this land to the glory of God, and also in her royal
estate she well conducted herself, as her nature was.  Of a
faithful and noble kin was she sprung.  Her father was Edward
Etheling, son of King Edmund.  Edmund was the son of Ethelred;
Ethelred the son of Edgar; Edgar the son of Edred; and so forth
in that royal line: and her maternal kindred goeth to the Emperor
Henry, who had the sovereignty over Rome.  This year went out
Githa, Harold's mother, and the wives of many good men with her,
to the Flat-Holm, and there abode some time; and so departed
thence over sea to St. Omer's.  This Easter came the king to
Winchester; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends
of April.  Soon after this came the Lady Matilda hither to this
land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster
on Whit Sunday.  Then it was told the king, that the people in
the North had gathered themselves together, and would stand
against him if he came.  Whereupon he went to Nottingham, and
wrought there a castle; and so advanced to York, and there
wrought two castles; and the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in
that quarter.  Then Earl Gospatric and the best men went into
Scotland.  Amidst this came one of Harold's sons from Ireland
with a naval force into the mouth of the Avon unawares, and
plundered soon over all that quarter; whence they went to
Bristol, and would have stormed the town; but the people bravely
withstood them.  When they could gain nothing from the town, they
went to their ships with the booty which they had acquired by
plunder; and then they advanced upon Somersetshire, and there
went up; and Ednoth, master of the horse, fought with them; but
he was there slain, and many good men on either side; and those
that were left departed thence.

A.D. 1068.  This year King William gave Earl Robert the earldom
over Northumberland; but the landsmen attacked him in the town of
Durham, and slew him, and nine hundred men with him.  Soon
afterwards Edgar Etheling came with all the Northumbrians to
York; and the townsmen made a treaty with him: but King William
came from the South unawares on them with a large army, and put
them to flight, and slew on the spot those who could not escape;
which were many hundred men; and plundered the town.  St. Peter's
minster he made a profanation, and all other places also he
despoiled and trampled upon; and the etheling went back again to
Scotland.  After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about
midsummer, with sixty-four ships into the mouth of the Taft,
where they unwarily landed: and Earl Breon came unawares against
them with a large army, and fought with them, and slew there all
the best men that were in the fleet; and the others, being small
forces, escaped to the ships: and Harold's sons went back to
Ireland again.

A.D. 1069.  This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is
there buried, at his see.  He died on the day of Protus and
Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years
wanting only fifteen weeks.  Soon after this came from Denmark
three of the sons of King Sweyne with two hundred and forty
ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the
Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar, and Earl
Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the
Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full
merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to
York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won
innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of
Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the
shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also
the holy minster of St. Peter had they entirely plundered, and
destroyed with fire.  When the king heard this, then went he
northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling
and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the
winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them.  The
king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land,
and came to Winchester at Easter.  Bishop Egelric, who was at
Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and
his brother Egelwine was outlawed.  This year also died Brand,
Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of
December.




ENDNOTES:
(70) i.e. Earl Godwin and his crew.
(71) i.e. from the Isle of Portland; where Godwin had landed
     after the plunder of the Isle of Wight.
(72) i.e. Dungeness; where they collected all the ships stationed
     in the great bay formed by the ports of Romney, Hithe, and
     Folkstone.
(73) i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.
(74) i.e. the tide of the river.
(75) Godwin's earldom consisted of Wessex, Sussex, and Kent:
     Sweyn's of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and
     Berkshire: and Harold's of Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon,
     and Cambridgeshire.
(76) The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl
     of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the
     first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the
     construction of the new abbey.  It appears from a MS. quoted
     by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-
     hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.
(77) Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the
     holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.
(78) The place where this army was assembled, though said to be
     very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the
     great distance from which some part of the forces came; as
     they were gathered from all England.  They met, I
     conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross",
     near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to
     Gloucester.
(79) This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon clergy, bishops
     and all.  The tone of elevated diction in which the writer
     describes the military enterprise of Leofgar and his
     companions, testifies his admiration.
(80) See more concerning him in Florence of Worcester.  His lady,
     Godiva, is better known at Coventry.  See her story at large
     in Bromton and Matthew of Westminster.
(81) He died at his villa at Bromleage (Bromley in
     Staffordshire). -- Flor.
(82) He built a new church from the foundation, on a larger plan.
     The monastery existed from the earliest times.
(83) Florence of Worcester says, that he went through Hungary to
     Jerusalem.
(84) This must not be confounded with a spire-steeple.  The
     expression was used to denote a tower, long before spires
     were invented.
(85) Lye interprets it erroneously the "festival" of St. Martin.
     -- "ad S. Martini festum:" whereas the expression relates to
     the place, not to the time of his death, which is mentioned
     immediately afterwards.
(86) This threnodia on the death of Edward the Confessor will be
     found to correspond, both in metre and expression, with the
     poetical paraphrase of Genesis ascribed to Caedmon.
(87) These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early
     cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway.  It is
     remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who
     says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all
     these expeditions.  Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.
(88) i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him
     Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald,
     King of Norway.
(89) Not only the twelve smacks with which he went into Scotland
     during the summer, as before stated, but an accession of
     force from all quarters.
(90) On the north bank of the Ouse, according to Florence of
     Worcester; the enemy having landed at Richale (now
     "Riccal").  Simeon of Durham names the spot "Apud Fulford,"
     i.e. Fulford-water, south of the city of York.
(91) It is scarcely necessary to observe that the term "English"
     begins about this time to be substituted for "Angles"; and
     that the Normans are not merely the Norwegians, but the
     Danes and other adventurers from the north, joined with the
     forces of France and Flanders; who, we shall presently see,
     overwhelmed by their numbers the expiring, liberties of
     England.  The Franks begin also to assume the name of
     Frencyscan or "Frenchmen".
(92) i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.

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