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Medieval and Classical Library

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Part 4: A.D. 1015 - 1051

Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #17



A.D. 1015.  This year was the great council at Oxford; where
Alderman Edric betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes
belonging to the Seven Towns.  He allured them into his bower,
where they were shamefully slain.  Then the king took all their
possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and
brought within Malmsbury.  After a little interval, Edmund
Etheling went and seized her, against the king's will, and had
her to wife.  Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the
etheling west-north into the Five Towns, (58) and soon plundered
all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people
submitted to him.  At the same time came King Knute to Sandwich,
and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the
mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in
Wiltshire, and in Somerset.  King Ethelred, meanwhile, lay sick
at Corsham; and Alderman Edric collected an army there, and
Edmund the etheling in the north.  When they came together, the
alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling, but he could
not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered
off from their enemies.  Alderman Edric then seduced forty ships
from the king, and submitted to Knute.  The West-Saxons also
submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army.  And he
continued there until midwinter.

A.D. 1016.  This year came King Knute with a marine force of one
hundred and sixty ships, and Alderman Edric with him, over the
Thames into Mercia at Cricklade; whence they proceeded to
Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered
therein, and burned, and slew all they met.  Then began Edmund
the etheling to gather an army, which, when it was collected,
could avail him nothing, unless the king were there and they had
the assistance of the citizens of London.  The expedition
therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home. 
After this. an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that
every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to
the king in London, and besought him to come to meet the army
with the aid that he could collect.  When they were all
assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before;
and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray
him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and
returned again to London.  Then rode Edmund the etheling to Earl
Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would
collect an army King Knute; but they went into Stafforddhire, and
to Shrewsbury, and to Chester; and they plundered on their parts,
and Knute on his.  He went out through Buckinghamshire to
Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into
Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford.  Thence into
Lincolnshire.  Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria
toward York.  When Utred understood this, he ceased from
plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and
all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he
was nevertheless slain by the advice of Alderman Edric, and
Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him.  After this, King Knute
appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went
southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came,
before Easter, to the ships.  Meantime Edmund Etheling went to
London to his father: and after Easter went King Knute with all
his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred died
ere the ships came.  He ended his days on St. George's day;
having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as
long as his life continued.  After his decease, all the peers
that were in London, and the citizens, chose Edmund king; who
bravely defended his kingdom while his time was.  Then came the
ships to Greenwich, about the gang-days, and within a short
interval went to London; where they sunk a deep ditch on the
south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the
bridge.  Afterwards they trenched the city without, so that no
man could go in or out, and often fought against it: but the
citizens bravely withstood them.  King Edmund had ere this gone
out, and invaded the West-Saxons, who all submitted to him; and
soon afterward he fought with the enemy at Pen near Gillingham. 
A second battle he fought, after midsummer, at Sherston; where
much slaughter was made on either side, and the leaders
themselves came together in the fight.  Alderman Edric and Aylmer
the darling were assisting the army against King Edmund.  Then
collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by
north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, and relieved
the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships.  It was within
two nights after that the king went over at Brentford; where he
fought with the enemy, and put them to flight: but there many of
the English were drowned, from their own carelessness; who went
before the main army with a design to plunder.  After this the
king went into Wessex, and collected his army; but the enemy soon
returned to London, and beset the city without, and fought
strongly against it both by water and land.  But the almighty God
delivered them.  The enemy went afterward from London with their
ships into the Orwell; where they went up and proceeded into
Mercia, slaying and burning whatsoever they overtook, as their
custom is; and, having provided themselves with meat, they drove
their ships and their herds into the Medway.  Then assembled King
Edmund the fourth time all the English nation, and forded over
the Thames at Brentford; whence he proceeded into Kent.  The
enemy fled before him with their horses into the Isle of Shepey;
and the king slew as many of them as he could overtake.  Alderman
Edric then went to meet the king at Aylesford; than which no
measure could be more ill-advised.  The enemy, meanwhile,
returned into Essex, and advanced into Mercia, destroying all
that he overtook.  When the king understood that the army was up,
then collected he the fifth time all the English nation, and went
behind them, and overtook them in Essex, on the down called
Assingdon; where they fiercely came together.  Then did Alderman
Edric as he often did before -- he first began the flight with
the Maisevethians, and so betrayed his natural lord and all the
people of England.  There had Knute the victory, though all
England fought against him!  There was then slain Bishop Ednoth,
and Abbot Wulsy, and Alderman Elfric, and Alderman Godwin of
Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward, the son of
Alderman Ethelsy (59).  And all the nobility of the English
nation was there undone!  After this fight went King Knute up
with his army into Glocestershire, where he heard say that King
Edmund was.  Then advised Alderman Edric, and the counsellors
that were there assembled, that the kings should make peace with
each other, and produce hostages.  Then both the kings met
together at Olney, south of Deerhurst, and became allies and
sworn brothers.  There they confirmed their friendship both with
pledges and with oaths, and settled the pay of the army.  With
this covenant they parted: King Edmund took to Wessex, and Knute
to Mercia and the northern district.  The army then went to their
ships with the things they had taken; and the people of London
made peace with them, and purchased their security, whereupon
they brought their ships to London, and provided themselves
winter-quarters therein.  On the feast of St. Andrew died King
Edmund; and he is buried with his grandfather Edgar at
Gastonbury.  In the same year died Wulfgar, Abbot of Abingdon;
and Ethelsy took to the abbacy.

A.D. 1017.  This year King Knute took to the whole government of
England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself,
East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric.
This year also was Alderman Edric slain at London, and Norman,
son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the
Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire.  King Knute also
banished Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain,
and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August
the king gave an order to fetch him the widow of the other king,
Ethelred, the daughter of Richard, to wife.

((A.D. 1017.  This year Canute was chosen king.))

A.D. 1018.  This year was the payment of the tribute over all
England; that was, altogether, two and seventy thousand pounds,
besides that which the citizens of London paid; and that was ten
thousand five hundred pounds.  The army then went partly to
Denmark; and forty ships were left with King Knute.  The Danes
and Angles were united at Oxford under Edgar's law; and this year
died Abbot Ethelsy at Abingdon, to whom Ethelwine succeeded.

A.D. 1019.  This year went King Knute with nine ships to Denmark,
where he abode all the winter; and Archbishop Elfstan died this
year, who was also named Lifing.  He was a very upright man both
before God and before the world.

((A.D. 1019.  And this winter died Archbishop Elfstan [of
Canterbury]: he was named Living; and he was a very provident
man, both as to God and as to the world.))

A.D. 1020.  This year came King Knute back to England; and there
was at Easter a great council at Cirencester, where Alderman
Ethelward was outlawed, and Edwy, king of the churls.  This year
went the king to Assingdon; with Earl Thurkyll, and Archbishop
Wulfstan, and other bishops, and also abbots, and many monks with
them; and he ordered to be built there a minster of stone and
lime, for the souls of the men who were there slain, and gave it
to his own priest, whose name was Stigand; and they consecrated
the minster at Assingdon.  And Ethelnoth the monk, who had been
dean at Christ's church, was the same year on the ides of
November consecrated Bishop of Christ's church by Archbishop
Wulfstan.

((A.D. 1020.  And caused to be built there [Canterbury] a minster
of stone and lime, for the souls of the men who there were slain,
and gave it to one of his priests, whose name was Stigand.))

A.D. 1021.  This year King Knute, at Martinmas, outlawed Earl
Thurkyll; and Bishop Elfgar, the abundant giver of alms, died in
the morning of Christmas day.

A.D. 1022.  This year went King Knute out with his ships to the
Isle of Wight.  And Bishop Ethelnoth went to Rome; where he was
received with much honour by Benedict the magnificent pope, who
with his own hand placed the pall upon him, and with great pomp
consecrated him archbishop, and blessed him, on the nones of
October.  The archbishop on the self-same day with the same pall
performed mass, as the pope directed him, after which he was
magnificently entertained by the pope himself; and afterwards
with a full blessing proceeded homewards.  Abbot Leofwine, who
had been unjustly expelled from Ely, was his companion; and he
cleared himself of everything, which, as the pope informed him,
had been laid to his charge, on the testimony of the archbishop
and of all the company that were with him.

((A.D. 1022.  And afterwards with the pall he there [at Rome]
performed mass as the pope instructed him: and he feasted after
that with the pope; and afterwards went home with a full
blessing.))

A.D. 1023.  This year returned King Knute to England; and
Thurkyll and he were reconciled.  He committed Denmark and his
son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with
him to England.  This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric
succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury.
This year King Knute in London, in St. Paul's minster, gave full
leave (60) to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all
God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from
the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege.  And they did so, on the
sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and
the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very
many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy
corpse over the Thames to Southwark.  And there they committed
the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they
with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester.
There on the third day came the Lady Emma with her royal son
Hardacnute; and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs
of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury, and so
brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before
the ides of June.  Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth
before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop
Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them,
lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the
altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the
holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those
who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all
humility.  May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men
through the holy intercession of Elphege!

((A.D. 1023.  And he caused St. Elphege's remains to be borne
from London to Canterbury.))

A.D. 1025.  This year went King Knute to Denmark with a fleet to
the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf,
with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden.  There
were very many men lost on the side of King Knute, both of Danish
and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of
battle.

A.D. 1026.  This year went Bishop Elfric to Rome, and received
the pall of Pope John on the second day before the ides of
November.

A.D. 1028.  This year went King Knute from England to Norway with
fifty ships manned with English thanes, and drove King Olave from
the land, which he entirely secured to himself.

A.D. 1029.  This year King Knute returned home to England.

A.D. 1030.  This year returned King Olave into Norway; but the
people gathered together against him, and fought against him; and
he was there slain, in Norway, by his own people, and was
afterwards canonised.  Before this, in the same year, died Hacon
the doughty earl, at sea.

((A.D. 1030.  This year came King Olave again into Norway, and
the people gathered against him, and fought against him; and he
was there slain.))

A.D. 1031.  This year returned King Knute; and as soon as he came
to England he gave to Christ's church in Canterbury the haven of
Sandwich, and all the rights that arise therefrom, on either side
of the haven; so that when the tide is highest and fullest, and
there be a ship floating as near the land as possible, and there
be a man standing upon the ship with a taper-axe in his hand,
whithersoever the large taper-axe might be thrown out of the
ship, throughout all that land the ministers of Christ's church
should enjoy their rights.  This year went King Knute to Rome;
and the same year, as soon as he returned home, he went to
Scotland; and Malcolm, king of the Scots, submitted to him, and
became his man, with two other kings, Macbeth and Jehmar; but he
held his allegiance a little while only.  Robert, Earl of
Normandy, went this year to Jerusalem, where he died; and
William, who was afterwards King of England, succeeded to the
earldom, though he was a child.

A.D. 1032.  This year appeared that wild fire, such as no man
ever remembered before, which did great damage in many places.
The same year died Elfsy, Bishop of Winchester; and Elfwin, the
king's priest, succeeded him.

A.D. 1033.  This year died Bishop Merewhite in Somersetshire, who
is buried at Glastonbury; and Bishop Leofsy, whose body resteth
at Worcester, and to whose see Brihteh was promoted.

A.D. 1034.  This year died Bishop Etheric, who lies at Ramsey.

A.D. 1035.  This year died King Knute at Shaftesbury, on the
second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at
Winchester in the old minster.  He was king over all England very
near twenty winters.  Soon after his decease, there was a council
of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all
the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London,
chose Harold to be governor of all England, for himself and his
brother Hardacnute, who was in Denmark.  Earl Godwin, and all the
eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but
they could do nothing against it.  It was then resolved that
Elfgiva, the mother of Hardacnute, should remain at Winchester
with the household of the king her son.  They held all Wessex in
hand, and Earl Godwin was their chief man.  Some men said of
Harold, that he was the son of King Knute and of Elfgive the
daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible
by many men.  He was, nevertheless, full king over all England.
Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive
the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and
ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could
not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode
there continually within the city as long as she could.

A.D. 1036.  This year came hither Alfred the innocent etheling,
son of King Ethelred, and wished to visit his mother, who abode
at Winchester: but Earl Godwin, and other men who had much power
in this land, did not suffer it; because such conduct was very
agreeable to Harold, though it was unjust.
          Him did Godwin let,
          and in prison set.
          His friends, who did not fly,
          they slew promiscuously.
          And those they did not sell,
          like slaughter'd cattle fell!
          Whilst some they spared to bind,
          only to wander blind!
          Some ham-strung, helpless stood,
          whilst others they pursued.
          A deed more dreary none
          in this our land was done,
          since Englishmen gave place
          to hordes of Danish race.
          But repose we must
          in God our trust,
          that blithe as day
          with Christ live they,
          who guiltless died --
          their country's pride!
          The prince with courage met
          each cruel evil yet;
          till 'twas decreed,
          they should him lead,
          all bound, as he was then,
          to Ely-bury fen.
          But soon their royal prize
          bereft they of his eyes!
          Then to the monks they brought
          their captive; where he sought
          a refuge from his foes
          till life's sad evening close.
          His body ordered then
          these good and holy men,
          according to his worth,
          low in the sacred earth,
          to the steeple full-nigh,
          in the south aile to lie
          of the transept west --
          his soul with Christ doth rest.

((A.D. 1036.  This year died King Canute at Shaftesbury, and he
is buried at Winchester in the Old-minster: and he was king over
all England very nigh twenty years.  And soon after his decease
there was a meeting of all the witan at Oxford; and Leofric, the
earl, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the
"lithsmen" at London, chose Harold for chief of all England, him
and his brother Hardecanute who was in Denmark.  And Godwin the
earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as they
could; but they were unable to effect anything in opposition to
it.  And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother,
should dwell at Winchester with the king's, her son's, house-
hold, and hold all Wessex in his power; and Godwin the earl was
their man.  Some men said of Harold that he was son of King
Canute and of Elfgive, daughter of Elfelm the ealdorman, but it
seemed quite incredible to many men; and he was nevertheless full
king over all England.))

A.D. 1037. This year men chose Harold king over all; and forsook
Hardacnute, because he was too long in Denmark; and then drove
out his mother Elgiva, the relict of King Knute, without any
pity, against the raging winter!  She, who was the mother of
Edward as well as of King Hardacnute, sought then the peace of
Baldwin by the south sea.  Then came she to Bruges, beyond sea;
and Earl Baldwin well received her there; and he gave her a
habitation at Bruges, and protected her, and entertained her
there as long as she had need.  Ere this in the same year died
Eafy, the excellent Dean of Evesham.

((A.D. 1037.  This year was driven out Elfgive, King Canute's
relict; she was King Hardecanute's mother; and she then sought
the protection of Baldwin south of the sea, and he gave her a
dwelling in Bruges, and protected and kept her, the while that
she there was.))

A.D. 1038.  This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on the
calends of November; and, within a little of this time, Bishop
Ethelric in Sussex, who prayed to God that he would not let him
live any time after his dear father Ethelnoth; and within seven
nights of this he also departed.  Then, before Christmas, died
Bishop Brihteh in Worcestershire; and soon after this, Bishop
Elfric in East Anglia.  Then succeeded Bishop Edsy to the
archbishopric, Grimkytel to the see of Sussex, and Bishop Lifing
to that of Worcester shire and Gloucestershire.

((A.D. 1038.  This year died Ethelnoth, the good archbishop, on
the kalends of November, and a little after, Ethelric, bishop in
Sussex, and then before Christmas, Briteagus, Bishop in
Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric, bishop in East-Anglia.))

A.D. 1039.  This year happened the terrible wind; and Bishop
Britmar died at Lichfield.  The Welsh slew Edwin. brother of Earl
Leofric, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and many good men with them.
This year also came Hardacnute to Bruges, where his mother was.

((A.D. 1039.  This year King Harold died at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the kalends of April, and he was buried at
Westminster.  And he ruled England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days sixteen ships were retained in pay, at the rate
of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had been before
done in the days of King Canute.  And in this same year came King
Hardecanute to Sandwich, seven days before midsummer.  And he was
soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes; though his
advisers afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed
that seventy-two ships should be retained in pay, at the rate of
eight marks for each rower.  And in this same year the sester of
wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even further.))

A.D. 1040.  This year died King Harold at Oxford, on the
sixteenth before the calends of April; and he was buried at
Westminster.  He governed England four years and sixteen weeks;
and in his days tribute was paid to sixteen ships, at the rate of
eight marks for each steersman, as was done before in King
Knute's days.  The same year they sent after Hardacnute to
Bruges, supposing they did well; and he came hither to Sandwich
with sixty ships, seven nights before midsummer.  He was soon
received both by the Angles and Danes, though his advisers
afterwards severely paid for it.  They ordered a tribute for
sixty-two ships, at the rate of eight marks for each steersman.
Then were alienated from him all that before desired him; for he
framed nothing royal during his whole reign.  He ordered the dead
Harold to be dragged up and thrown into a ditch.  This year rose
the sester of wheat to fifty-five pence, and even further.  This
year Archbishop Edsy went to Rome.

((A.D. 1040.  This year was the tribute paid; that twenty-one
thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds.  And after that they paid
to thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds. 
And, in this same year, came Edward, son of King Ethelred, hither
to land, from Weal-land; he was brother of King Hardecanute: they
were both sons of Elfgive; Emma, who was daughter of Earl
Richard.))

A.D. 1041.  This year was the tribute paid to the army; that was,
21,099 pounds; and afterwards to thirty-two ships, 11,048 pounds.
This year also ordered Hardacnute to lay waste all
Worcestershire, on account of the two servants of his household,
who exacted the heavy tribute.  That people slew them in the town
within the minster.  Early in this same year came Edward, the son
of King Ethelred, hither to land, from Weal-land to Madron.  He
was the brother of King Hardacnute, and had been driven from this
land for many years: but he was nevertheless sworn as king, and
abode in his brother's court while he lived.  They were both sons
of Elfgive Emma, who was the daughter oœ Earl Richard.  In 
this
year also Hardacnute betrayed Eadulf, under the mask of
friendship.  He was also allied to him by marriage.  This year
was Egelric consecrated Bishop of York, on the third day before
the ides of January.

((A.D. 1041.  This year died King Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the
sixth before the ides of June: and he was king over all England
two years wanting ten days; and he is buried in the Old-minster
at Winchester with King Canute his father.  And his mother, for
his soul, gave to the New-minster the head of St. Valentine the
martyr.  And before he was buried, all people chose Edward for
king at London: may he hold it the while that God shall grant it
to him!  And all that year was a very heavy time, in many things
and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of
the earth.  And so much cattle perished in the year as no man
before remembered, as well through various diseases as through
tempests.  And in this same time died Elsinus, Abbot of
Peterborough; and then Arnwius the monk was chosen abbot, because
he was a very good man, and of great simplicity.))

A.D. 1042.  This year died King Hardacnute at Lambeth, as he
stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous
struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he
spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before
the ides of June.  He was king over all England two years wanting
ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester
with King Knute his father.  And his mother for his soul gave to
the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he
was buried all people chose Edward for king in London.  And they
received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as
long as God granted him.  All that year was the season very
severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of
the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth.  More
cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from
various diseases, or from the severity of the weather.  At this
same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose
Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and
benevolent man.

A.D. 1043.  This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester,
early on Easter-day, with much pomp.  Then was Easter on the
third day before the nones of April.  Archbishop Edsy
consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him.  And
Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles.
And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it
was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and Earl Godwin
and Earl Siward with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester
to Winchester unawares upon the lady; and they deprived her of
all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she
was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for
him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they
suffered her to remain there afterwards.  And soon after this the
king determined to invest all the land that his mother had in her
hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver
and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast
against him.  Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his
bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the
king, because he was nighest the counsel of his mother; and she
acted as he advised, as men supposed.

((A.D. 1043.  This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester
on the first day of Easter.  And this year, fourteen days before
Andrew's-mass, the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and
Leofric the earl, and Godwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the
earl, with their followers, to Winchester, unawares upon the lady
[Emma]; and they bereaved her of all the treasures which she
possessed, they were not to be told, because before that she had
been very hard with the king her son; inasmuch as she had done
less for him than he would, before he was king, and also since:
and they suffered her after that to remain therein.  This year
King Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the earl for
his wife.  And in this same year died Bishop Brithwin, and he
held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of
Sherborne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the
bishopric.  And in this year Wulfric was hallowed Abbot of St.
Augustine's at Christmas, on Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the
king, and, on account of his great infirmity, of Abbot Elfstun.))

A.D. 1044.  This year Archbishop Edsy resigned his see from
infirmity, and consecrated Siward, Abbot of Abingdon, bishop
thereto, with the permission and advice of the king and Earl
Godwin.  It was known to few men else before it was done; because
the archbishop feared that some other man would either beg or buy
it, whom he might worse trust and oblige than him, if it were
known to many men.  This year there was very great hunger over
all England, and corn so dear as no man remembered before; so
that the sester of wheat rose to sixty pence, and even further.
And this same year the king went out to Sandwich with thirty-five
ships; and Athelstan, the churchwarden, succeeded to the abbacy
of Abingdon, and Stigand returned to his bishopric.  In the same
year also King Edward took to wife Edgitha, the daughter of Earl
Godwin, ten nights before Candlemas.  And in the same year died
Britwold, Bishop of Wiltshire, on the tenth day before the
calends of May; which bishopric he held thirty-eight winters;
that was, the bishopric of Sherborn.  And Herman, the king's
priest, succeeded to the bishopric.  This year Wulfric was
consecrated Abbot of St. Augustine's, at Christmas, on the
mass-day of St. Stephen, by the king's leave and that of Abbot
Elfstan, by reason of his great infirmity.

((A.D. 1044.  This year died Living, Bishop in Devonshire, and
Leoftic succeeded thereto; he was the king's priest.  And in this
same year died Elfstan, Abbot of St. Augustine's, on the third
before the nones of July.  And in this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa.))

A.D. 1045.  This year died Elfward, Bishop of London, on the
eighth day before the calends of August.  He was formerly Abbot
of Evesham, and well furthered that monastery the while that he
was there.  He went then to Ramsey, and there resigned his life:
and Mannie was chosen abbot, being consecrated on the fourth day
before the ides of August.  This year Gunnilda, a woman of rank,
a relative of King Knute, was driven out, and resided afterwards
at Bruges a long while, and then went to Denmark.  King Edward
during the year collected a large fleet at Sandwich, through the
threatening of Magnus of Norway; but his contests with Sweyne in
Denmark prevented him from coming hither.

((A.D. 1045.  This year died Grimkytel, Bishop in Sussex, and
Heca, the king's priest, succeeded thereto.  And in this year
died Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, on the fourth before the
kalends of September; and Stigand, bishop to the north
[Flanders], succeeded thereto.  And in the same year Sweyn the
earl went out to Baldwin's land [Of Elmham] to Bruges and abode
there all the winter; and then in summer he went out.))

A.D. 1046.  This year died Lifting, the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth day before the calends of April.  He had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, one in Cornwall, and another in
Worcestershire.  Then succeeded Leofric, who was the king's
priest, to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop Aldred to
Worcestershire.  This year died Elfwine, Bishop of Winchester, on
the fourth day before the calends of September; and Stigand,
Bishop of Norfolk, was raised to his see.  Ere this, in the same
year, died Grimkytel, Bishop of Sussex; and he lies at
Christ-church, in Canterbury.  And Heca, the' king's priest,
succeeded to the bishopric.  Sweyne also sent hither, and
requested the aid of fifty ships against Magnus, king of the
Norwegians; but it was thought unwise by all the people, and it
was prevented, because that Magnus had a large navy: and he drove
Sweyne out, and with much slaughter won the land.  The Danes then
gave him much money, and received him as king.  The same year
Magnus died.  The same year also Earl Sweyne went out to
Baldwin's land, to Bruges; and remained there all the winter.  In
the summer he departed.

A.D. 1046.  This year went Earl Sweyne into Wales; and Griffin,
king of the northern men with him; and hostages were delivered to
him.  As he returned homeward, he ordered the Abbess of
Leominster to be fetched him; and he had her as long as he list,
after which he let her go home.  In this same year was outlawed
Osgod Clapa, the master of horse, before midwinter.  And in the
same year, after Candlemas, came the strong winter, with frost
and with snow, and with all kinds of bad weather; so that there
was no man then alive who could remember so severe a winter as
this was, both through loss of men and through loss of cattle;
yea, fowls and fishes through much cold and hunger perished.

((A.D. 1046.  This year died Brithwin, bishop in Wiltshire, and
Herman was appointed to his see.  In that year King Edward
gathered a large ship-force at Sandwich, on account of the
threatening of Magnus in Norway: but his and Sweyn's contention
in Denmark hindered his coming here.  This year died Athelstan,
Abbot of Abingdon, and Sparhawk, monk of St. Edmund's-bury,
succeeded him.  And in this same year died bishop Siward, and
Archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole bishopric.  And in
this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty-five ships to
Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men, and in gold,
and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all was.  And they
then went about Thanet, and would there do the like; but the
land's-folk strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well
landing as water; and thence utterly put them to flight.  And
they betook themselves then into Essex, and there they ravaged,
and took men, and property, and whatsoever they might find.  And
they betook themselves then east to Baldwine's land, and there
they sold what they had plundered; and after that went their way
east, whence they before had come.  In this year was the great
synod at St. Remi's [Rheins].  Thereat was Leo the pope, and the
Archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and the Archbishop of Besancon,
and the Archbishop of Treves, and the Archbishop of Rheims; and
many men besides, both clergy and laity.  And King Edward sent
thither Bishop Dudoc [Of Wells], and Wulfric, Abbot of St.
Augustine's, and Abbot Elfwin [Of Ramsey], that they might make
known to the king what should be there resolved on for
Christendom.  And in this same year King Edward went out to
Sandwich with a great fleet.  And Sweyn the earl, son of Godwin
the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships; and he obtained the
king's protection, and he was promised that he should be held
worthy of everything which he before possessed.  Then Harold the
earl, his brother, and Beorn the earl contended that he should
not be held worthy of any of the things which the king had
granted to them: but a protection of four days was appointed him
to go to his ships.  Then befell it during this, that word came
to the king that hostile ships lay westward, and were ravaging. 
Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of the king's
ships; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tosty his
brother; and forty-two of the people's ships.  Then Harold the
earl was removed from the king's ship which Harold the earl
before had commanded.  Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay
there weather-bound.  Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn
the earl thither, and spoke with his father, and with Beorn the
earl, and begged of Beorn that he would go with him to the king
at Sandwich, and help him to the king's friendship: and he
granted it.  Then went they as if they would go to the king. 
Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he
would go with him to his ships: saying that his seamen would
depart from him unless he should at the soonest come thither.
Then went they both where his ships lay.  When they came thither,
then begged Sweyn the earl of him that he would go with him on
ship-board.  He strenuously refused, so long as until his seamen
seized him, and threw him into the boat, and bound him, and rowed
to the ship, and put him there aboard.  Then they hoisted up
their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had him with them until
they slew him: and they took the body and buried it in a church.
And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took him
up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster, and he is
there buried with King Canute his uncle.  And Sweyn went then
east to Baldwin's land, and sat down there all the winter at
Bruges, with his full protection.  And in the same year died
Eadnoth [II.] bishop [Of Dorchester] of the north and Ulf was
made bishop.))

A.D. 1047.  This year died Athelstan, Abbot of Abingdon, on the
fourth day before the calends of April; and Sparhawk, monk of St.
Edmundsbury, succeeded him.  Easter day was then on the third day
before the nones of April; and there was over all England very
great loss of men this year also.  The same year came to Sandwich
Lothen and Irling, with twenty-five ships, and plundered and took
incalculable spoil, in men, and in gold, and in silver, so that
no man wist what it all was; and went then about Thanet, and
would there have done the same; but the land-folk firmly
withstood, and resisted them both by land and sea, and thence put
them to flight withal.  They betook themselves thence into Essex,
where they plundered and took men, and whatsoever they could
find, whence they departed eastward to Baldwin's land, and having
deposited the booty they had gained, they returned east to the
place whence they had come before.

((A.D. 1047.  This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the
tenth before the kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics;
one in Devonshire, and in Cornwall, and in Worcester.  Then
Leofric (61) succeeded to Devonshire and to Cornwall, and Bishop
Aldred to Worcester.  And in this year Osgod, the master of the
horse, was outlawed: and Magnus [King of Norway] won Denmark.  In
this year there was a great council in London at mid-Lent, and
nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained
behind.  In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England.  And
in this same year was the great synod at Rome, and King Edward
sent thither Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred; and they came
thither on Easter eve.  And afterwards the pope held a synod at
Vercelli, and Bishop Ulf came thereto; and well nigh would they
have broken his staff, if he had not given very great gifts;
because he knew not how to do his duty so well as he should.  And
in this year died Archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the
kalends of November.))

A.D. 1048.  This year came Sweyne back to Denmark; and Harold,
the uncle of Magnus, went to Norway on the death of Magnus, and
the Northmen submitted to him.  He sent an embassy of peace to
this land, as did also Sweyne from Denmark, requesting of King
Edward naval assistance to the amount at least of fifty ships;
but all the people resisted it.  This year also there was an
earthquake, on the calends of May, in many places; at Worcester,
at Wick, and at Derby, and elsewhere wide throughout England;
with very great loss by disease of men and of cattle over all
England; and the wild fire in Derbyshire and elsewhere did much
harm.  In the same year the enemy plundered Sandwich, and the
Isle of Wight, and slew the best men that were there; and King
Edward and the earls went out after them with their ships.  The
same year Bishop Siward resigned his bishopric from infirmity,
and retired to Abingdon; upon which Archbishop Edsy resumed the
bishopric; and he died within eight weeks of this, on the tenth
day before the calends of November.

((A.D. 1048.  This year was the severe winter: and this year died
Alwyn, Bishop of Winchester, and Bishop Stigand was raised to his
see.  And before that, in the same year, died Grinketel, Bishop
in Sussex, and Heca the priest succeeded to the bishopric.  And
Sweyn also sent hither, begging assistance against Magnus, King
of Norway; that fifty ships should be sent to his aid.  But it
seemed unadvisable to all people: and it was then hindered by
reason that Magnus had a great ship-force.  And he then drove out
Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land: and the Danes paid
him much money and acknowledged him as king.  And that same year
Magnus died.  In this year King Edward appointed Robert, of
London, Archbishop of Canterbury, during Lent.  And in the same
Lent he went to Rome after his pall: and the king gave the
bishopric of London to Sparhafoc, Abbot of Abingdon; and the king
gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop Rodulf, his kinsman.  Then
came the archbishop from Rome one day before St. Peter's mass-
eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at Christ's Church on
St. Peter's mass-day; and soon after went to the king.  Then came
Abbot Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order
that he should consecrate him Bishop of London.  Then the
archbishop refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.
Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for that purpose, and
there desired episcopal ordination; and the archbishop constantly
refused him, and said that the pope had forbidden it him.  Then
went the abbot to London, and occupied the bishopric which the
king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the summer
and the harvest.  And then came Eustace [Earl of Boulogne] from
beyond sea soon after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke
with him that which he then would, and went then homeward.  When
he came to Canterbury, east, then took he refreshment there, and
his men, and went to Dover.  When he was some mile or more, on
this side of Dover, then he put on his breast-plate, and so did
all his companions, and went to Dover.  When they came thither,
then would they lodge themselves where they chose.  Then came one
of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against
his will, and wounded the householder; and the householder slew
the other.  Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions
upon theirs; and they went to the householder, and slew him
within his own dwelling; and they went up towards the town, and
slew, as well within as without, more than twenty men.  And the
townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded they
knew not how many.  And Eustace escaped with a few men, and went
again to the king, and made known to him, in part, how they had
fared.  And the king became very wroth with the townsmen.  And
the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him go into Kent in a
hostile manner to Dover: for Eustace had made it appear to the
king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than his:
but it was not so.  And the earl would not consent to the inroad,
because he was loth to injure his own people.  Then the king sent
after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the
aftermass of St. Mary.  Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in
Herefordshire among the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought
every kind of harm and disgrace to the king's men there about
which they could.  Then came Godwin the earl, and Sweyn the earl,
and Harold the earl, together at Beverstone, and many men with
them, in order that they might go to their royal lord, and to all
the peers who were assembled with him, in order that they might
have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council,
how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole
nation's.  Then were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and
accused the earls, so that they might not come within his eyes'
sight; because they said that they were coming thither in order
to betray the king.  Thither had come Siward the earl [Of
Northumbria] and Leofric the earl [Of Mercia], and much people
with them, from the north, to the king; and it was made known to
the Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king and the men who were
with him, were taking counsel concerning them: and they arrayed
themselves on the other hand resolutely, though it were loathful
to them that they should stand against their royal lord.  Then
the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil should
cease: and the king gave the peace of God and his full friendship
to either side.  Then the king and his peers decreed that a
council of all the nobles should be held for the second time in
London at the harvest equinox; and the king directed the army to
be called out, as well south of the Thames as north, all that was
in any way most eminent.  Then declared they Sweyn the earl an
outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and Harold the earl, to the
council, as quickly as they could effect it.  When they had come
thither, then were they summoned into the council.  Then required
he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed,
into the council and out of the council.  Then the king demanded
all the thanes whom the earls before had: and they granted them
all into his hands.  Then the king sent again to them, and
commanded them that they should come with twelve men to the
king's council.  Then the earl again required safe conduct and
hostages, that he might defend himself against each of those
things which were laid to him.  Then were the hostages refused
him; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out
of the land.  And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond
sea, and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the
winter.  And Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there
all the winter within the king's protection.  And soon after this
happened, then put away the king the lady who had been
consecrated his queen [Editha], and caused to be taken from her
all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and
in all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell.  And
Abbot Sparhafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London,
and William the king's priest was ordained thereto.  And then
Odda was appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and
over Dorset, and over the Welsh.  And Algar, the son of Leofric
the earl, was appointed to the earldom which Harold before
held.))

A.D. 1049. (62)  This year the emperor gathered an innumerable
army against Baldwin of Bruges, because he had destroyed the
palace of Nimeguen, and because of many other ungracious acts
that he did against him.  The army was immense that he had
collected together.  There was Leo, the Pope of Rome, and the
patriarch, and many other great men of several provinces.  He
sent also to King Edward, and requested of him naval aid, that he
might not permit him to escape from him by water.  Whereupon he
went to Sandwich, and lay there with a large naval armament,
until the emperor had all that he wished of Baldwin.  Thither
also came back again Earl Sweyne, who had gone from this land to
Denmark, and there ruined his cause with the Danes.  He came
hither with a pretence, saying that he would again submit to the
king, and be his man; and he requested Earl Beorn to be of
assistance to him, and give him land to feed him on.  But Harold,
his brother, and Earl Beorn resisted, and would give him nothing
of that which the king had given them.  The king also refused him
everything.  Whereupon Swevne retired to his ships at Bosham. 
Then, after the settlement between the emperor and Baldwin, many
ships went home, and the king remained behind Sandwich with a few
ships.  Earl Godwin also sailed forty-two ships from Sandwich to
Pevensey, and Earl Beorn went with him.  Then the king gave leave
to all the Mercians to return home, and they did so.  Then it was
told the king that Osgod lay at Ulps with thirty-nine ships;
whereupon the king sent after the ships that he might dispatch,
which before had gone homewards, but still lay at the Nore.  Then
Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges; and they went back again with
six ships; but the rest went towards Essex, to Eadulf's-ness, and
there plundered, and then returned to their ships.  But there
came upon them a strong wind, so that they were all lost but four
persons, who were afterwards slain beyond sea.  Whilst Earl
Godwin and Earl Beorn lay at Pevensey with their ships, came Earl
Sweyne, and with a pretence requested of Earl Beorn, who was his
uncle's son, that he would be his companion to the king at
Sandwich, and better his condition with him; adding, that he
would swear oaths to him, and be faithful to him.  Whereupon
Beorn concluded, that he would not for their relationship betray
him.  He therefore took three companions with him, and they rode
to Bosham, where his (63) ships lay, as though they should
proceed to Sandwich; but they suddenly bound him, and led him to
the ships, and went thence with him to Dartmouth, where they
ordered him to be slain and buried deep.  He was afterwards
found, and Harold his cousin fetched him thence, and led him to
Winchester, to the old minster, where he buried him with King
Knute, his uncle.  Then the king and all the army proclaimed
Sweyne an outlaw.  A little before this the men of Hastings and
thereabout fought his two ships with their ships, and slew all
the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king.  Eight
ships had he, ere he betrayed Beorn; afterwards they all forsook
him except two; whereupon he went eastward to the land of
Baldwin, and sat there all the winter at Bruges, in full
security.  In the same year came up from Ireland thirty-six ships
on the Welsh coast, and thereabout committed outrages, with the
aid of Griffin, the Welsh king.  The people were soon gathered
against them, and there was also with them Bishop Eldred, but
they had too little assistance, and the enemy came unawares on
them very early in the morning, and slew on the spot many good
men; but the others burst forth with the bishop.  This was done
on the fourth day before the calends of August.  This year died
the good Bishop Ednoth in Oxfordshire; and Oswy, Abbot of Thomey;
and Wulfnoth, Abbot of Westminster; and King Edward gave the
bishopric which Ednoth had to Ulf his priest, but it ill betided
him; and he was driven from it, because he did nought like a
bishop therein, so that it shameth us now to say more.  Bishop
Siward also died who lies at Abingdon.  In this same year King
Edward put nine ships out of pay; and the crews departed, and
went away with the ships withal, leaving five ships only behind,
for whom the king ordered twelve months pay.  The same year went
Bishops Hereman and Aldred to the pope at Rome on the king's
errand.  This year was also consecrated the great minster at
Rheims, in the presence of Pope Leo and the emperor.  There was
also a great synod at St. Remy; (64) at which was present Pope
Leo, with the Archbishops of Burgundy, of Besancon, of Treves,
and of Rheims; and many wise men besides, both clergy and laity.
A great synod there held they respecting the service of God, at
the instance of St. Leo the pope.  It is difficult to recognise
all the bishops that came thither, and also abbots.  King Edward
sent thither Bishop Dudoc, and Abbot Wulfric, of St. Augustine's,
and Elfwin, Abbot of Ramsey, with the intent that they should
report to the king what was determined there concerning
Christendom.  This same year came Earl Sweyne into England.

((A.D. 1049.  This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold.
uncle of Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead; and the
Normans acknowledged him: and he sent hither to land concerning
peace.  And Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of King
Edward the aid of his ships.  They were to be at least fifty
ships: but all people opposed it.  And this year also there was
an earthquake,  on the kalends of May, in many places in
Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere; and also
there was a great mortality among men, and murrain among cattle:
and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and
elsewhere.))

A.D. 1050.  This year returned the bishops home from Rome; (65)
and Earl Sweyne had his sentence of outlawry reversed.  The same
year died Edsy, Archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day
before the calends of November; and also in the same year Elfric,
Archbishop of York, on the eleventh before the calends of
February, a very venerable man and wise, and his body lies at
Peterborough.  Then had King Edward a meeting of the great
council in London, in mid-lent, at which he appointed Robert the
Frank, who was before Bishop of London, Archbishop of Canterbury;
and he, during the same Lent, went to Rome after his pall.  The
king meanwhile gave the see of London to Sparhawk, Abbot of
Abingdon, but it was taken from him again before he was
consecrated.  The king also gave the abbacy of Abingdon to Bishop
Rodulph his cousin.  The same year he put all the lightermen out
of pay. (66)  The pope held a council again, at Vercelli; and
Bishop Ulf came thither, where he nearly had his staff broken,
had he not paid more money, because he could not perform his
duties so well as he should do.  The same year King Edward
abolished the Danegeld which King Ethelred imposed.  That was in
the thirty-ninth year after it had begun.  That tribute harassed
all the people of England so long as is above written; and it was
always paid before other imposts, which were levied
indiscriminately, and vexed men variously.

((A.D. 1050.  Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had
gone from this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself
with the Danes.  He came thither with false pretences; saying
that he would again be obedient to the king.  And Beorn the earl
promised him that he would be of assistance to him.  Then, after
the reconciliation of the emperor and of Baldwin, many of the
ships went home, and the king remained behind at Sandwich with a
few ships; and Godwin the earl also went with forty-two ships
from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beorn the earl went with him. 
Then was it made known to the king that Osgood lay at Ulps with
thirty-nine ships; and the king then sent after the ships which
before had gone home, that he might send after him.  And Osgod
fetched his wife from Bruges, and they went back again with six
ships.  And the others landed in Sussex [Essex] at Eadulf-ness,
and there did harm, and went again to their ships: and then a
strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroyed,
except four, whose crews were slain beyond sea.  While Godwin the
earl and Beorn the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the
earl, and begged Beorn the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle's
son, that he would be his companion to the king at Sandwich, and
better his affairs with him.  He went then, on account of the
relationship, with three companions, with him; and he led him
then towards Bosham, where his ships lay: and then they bound
him, and led him on ship-board.  Then went he thence with him to
Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deeply buried.
Afterwards he was found, and borne to Winchester, and buried with
king Canute his uncle.  A little before that, the men of Hastings
and thereabout, fought two of his ships with their ships; and
slew all the men, and brought the ships to Sandwich to the king.
Eight ships he had before he betrayed Beorn; after that all
forsook him except two.  In the same year arrived in the Welsh
Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm,
with the help of Griffin the Welsh king.  The people were
gathered together against them; Bishop Aldred [Of Worchester] was
also there with them; but they had too little power.  And they
came unawares upon them at very early morn; and there they slew
many good men, and the others escaped with the bishop: this was
done on the fourth before the kalends of August.  This year died,
in Oxfordshire, Oswy, Abbot of Thorney, and Wulfnoth, Abbot of
Westminster; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the
bishopric which Eadnoth had held; but he was after that driven
away; because he did nothing bishop-like therein: so that it
shameth us now to tell more about it.  And Bishop Siward died: he
lieth at Abingdon.  And this year was consecrated the great
minster at Rheims: there was Pope Leo [IX.] and the emperor
[Henry III]; and there they held a great synod concerning God's
service.  St. Leo the pope presided at the synod: it is difficult
to have a knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many
abbots: and hence, from this land were sent two -- from St.
Augustine's and from Ramsey.))

A.D. 1051.  This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with
his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took
his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and
soon after this went to the king.  Then came Abbot Sparhawk to
him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should
consecrate him Bishop oœ London; but the archbishop 
refused,
saying that the pope had forbidden him.  Then went the abbot to
the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded
episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused,
repeating that the pope had forbidden him.  Then went the abbot
to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before
given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn.
Then during the same year came Eustace, who had the sister of
King Edward to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and
went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose,
he then went homeward.  When he came to Canterbury eastward,
there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to
Dover.  When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, he
put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they
proceeded to Dover.  When they came thither, they resolved to
quarter themselves wherever they lived.  Then came one of his
men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against
his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was
slain by the other.  Then was Eustace quickly upon his horse, and
his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the
family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the
boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty
men.  The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and
wounded more, but they knew not how many.  Eustace escaped with a
few men, and went again to the king, telling him partially how
they had fared.  The king was very wroth with the townsmen, and
sent off Earl Godwin, bidding him go into Kent with hostility to
Dover.  For Eustace had told the king that the guilt of the
townsmen was greater than his.  But it was not so: and the earl
would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to
destroy his own people.  Then sent the king after all his
council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of
St. Mary.  Meanwhile Godwin took it much to heart, that in his
earldom such a thing should happen.  Whereupon be began to gather
forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne, his son, over his;
and Harold, his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled
all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, a large and innumerable
army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace and
his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen
that were in the castle.  This was done seven nights before the
latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward was sitting at
Gloucester.  Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north
after Earl Siward, and summoned their retinues.  At first they
came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in
the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and
ordered a large force to the help of their lord.  So did Ralph
also over his earldom.  Then came they all to Gloucester to
the aid of the king, though it was late.  So unanimous were they
all in defence of the king, that they would seek Godwin's army if
the king desired it.  But some prevented that; because it was
very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies
was there almost all that was noblest in England.  They therefore
prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy
of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt
ourselves.  Then it was advised that they should exchange
hostages between them.  And they issued proclamations throughout
to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this
north end in Siward's earldom, and in Leofric's, and also
elsewhere; and Earl Godwin was to come thither with his sons to a
conference; They came as far as Southwark, and very many with
them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and
more; for they bound over to the king all the thanes that
belonged to Earl Harold his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne his
other son.  When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come
to a conference against the king and against the army that was
with him, he went in the night away.  In the morning the king
held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole
army; himself and his wife, and all his three sons -- Sweyne and
Tosty and Grith.  And he went south to Thorney, (67) with his
wife, and Sweyne his son, and Tosty and his wife, a cousin of
Baldwin of Bruges, and his son Grith.  Earl Harold with Leofwine
went to Bristol in the ship that Earl Sweyne had before prepared
and provisioned for himself; and the king sent Bishop Aldred from
London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came
to ship.  But they either could not or would not: and he then
went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such
adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered
great loss.  He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the
weather permitted.  In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a
castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne, and
brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's men thereabout
as they could.  Then came Earl Godwin, and Earl Sweyne, and Earl
Harold, together at Beverstone, and many men with them; to the
intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the
peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's counsel
and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge
the insult offered to the king, and to all the nation.  But the
Welshmen were before with the king, and bewrayed the earls, so
that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his
eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to
betray the king.  There was now assembled before the king (68)
Earl Siward, and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the
north: and it was told Earl Godwin and his sons, that the king
and the men who were with him would take counsel against them;
but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were
loth to proceed against their natural lord.  Then advised the
peers on either side, that they should abstain from all
hostility: and the king gave God's peace and his full friendship
to each party.  Then advised the king and his council, that there
should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in
London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king ordered out an army
both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was.  Then
was Earl Sweyne proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin and Earl
Harold were summoned to the council as early as they could come.
When they came thither and were cited to the council, then
required they security and hostages, that they might come into
the council and go out without treachery.  The king then demanded
all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his
hands.  Then sent the king again to them, and commanded them to
come with twelve men to the king's council.  Then desired the
earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to
each of the things that were laid to his charge.  But the
hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him
to depart from the land.  Then went Earl Godwin and Earl Sweyne
to Bosham, and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking
the protection of Baldwin; and there they abode all the winter.
Earl Harold went westward to Ireland, and was there all the
winter on the king's security.  It was from Thorney (69) that
Godwin and those that were with him went to Bruges, to Baldwin's
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge
therein for each man.  Wonderful would it have been thought by
every man that was then in England, if any person had said before
this that it would end thus!  For he was before raised to such a
height, that he ruled the king and all England; his sons were
earls, and the king's darlings; and his daughter wedded and
united to the king.  Soon after this took place, the king
dismissed the lady who had been consecrated his queen, and
ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in
gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the
care of his sister at Wherwell.  Soon after came Earl William
from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king
entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient
to him, and let him depart again.  Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven
from his bishopric at London; and William the king's priest was
invested therewith.  Then was Oddy appointed earl over
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales;
and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom
which Harold before possessed.

((A.D. 1051.  In this year died Eadsine, Archbishop of
Canterbury; and the king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before
had been Bishop of London, the archbishopric.  And Sparhafoc,
Abbot of Abingdon, succeeded to the bishopric of London; and it
was afterwards taken from him before he was consecrated.  And
Bishop Heroman and Bishop Aldred went to Rome.))




ENDNOTES:
(59) There is a marked difference respecting the name of this
     alderman in MSS.  Some have Ethelsy, as above; others,
     Elfwine, and Ethelwine.  The two last may be reconciled, as
     the name in either case would now be Elwin; but Ethelsy, and
     Elsy are widely different.  Florence of Worcester not only
     supports the authority of Ethelwine, but explains it "Dei
     amici."
(60) Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with
     his own hands.
(61) Leofric removed the see to Exeter.
(62) So Florence of Worcester, whose authority we here follow for
     the sake of perspicuity, though some of these events are
     placed in the MSS. to very different years; as the story of
     Beorn.
(63) i.e. The ships of Sweyne, who had retired thither, as before
     described.
(64) "Vid. Flor." A.D. 1049, and verbatim from him in the same
     year, Sim. Dunelm. "inter X. Script. p. 184, I, 10.  See
     also Ordericus Vitalis, A.D. 1050.  This dedication of the
     church of St. Remi, a structure well worth the attention of
     the architectural antiquary, is still commemorated by an
     annual loire, or fair, on the first of October, at which the
     editor was present in the year 1815, and purchased at a
     stall a valuable and scarce history of Rheims, from which he
     extracts the following account of the synod mentioned above:
     -- "Il fut assemble a l'occasion de la dedicace de la
     nouvelle eglise qu' Herimar, abbe de ce monastere, avoit
     fait batir, seconde par les liberalites des citoyens, etc."
     ("Hist. de Reims", p. 226.)  But, according to our
     Chronicle, the pope took occasion from this synod to make
     some general regulations which concerned all Christendom.
(65) Hereman and Aldred, who went on a mission to the pope from
     King Edward, as stated in the preceding year.
(66) Nine ships were put out of commission the year before; but
     five being left on the pay-list for a twelvemonth, they were
     also now laid up.
(67) The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse
     because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
(68) i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle;
     which omits all that took place in the meantime at London
     and Southwark.
(69) Now Westminster.

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